Elements of typicality of buffalo mozzarella di Campana DOP, are mainly made up of the raw material used, the fresh buffalo milk, particularly rich in fat and protein, and from spinning. Operation, the latter, consisting in working by hand the pasta of the cheese at the end of maturation with boiling water until it is "spun", in order to obtain the particular consistency of the final product and the characteristic "bouquet", determined by Particular microflora that develops during the various phases of the processing.
The spinning makes use of a ladle and a stick, both in wood, lifting and pulling the molten dough continuously until a homogeneous dough is obtained. It then follows the forming, which in many dairies is still carried out by hand with the traditional "cutting", which the dairyman carries out with the thumb and the index of the hand. The mozzarella so produced are then left to cool in tanks containing cold water and finally salted.
The crust is very thin and white in color, while the pasta does not have dark circles and is slightly elastic in the first eight to ten hours from production, and then more and more fondant. The specification, in addition to the classic rounded shapes, foresees other commercial typologies: The tidbits, the cherries, the beads, the knots, the Ovolini and the famous "braids".
The weight varies according to the shape, from 10 to 800 grams (3 kg for braids). Smoking is also permitted, an ancient and traditional natural processing process, but in this case the designation of origin must be followed by the word "smoked".
On average, it takes 4.2 litres of buffalo milk to produce one kilogram of mozzarella.
The origins of the product are directly to the introduction of the Buffalo in Italy. There are numerous assumptions about the age of introduction of Buffalo in Italy, originating in eastern India. According to some authors the Italian hoax would have native origin, for the finding of fossil finds in the Roman countryside, others claim that it was introduced after the invasion of the Lombards, others say that it was the Norman kings Around the year 1000.
The confusion is thought to have been generated by the fact that, with the term of Bubalus, in Roman times were indicated oxen, moose and other ruminants including the wild oxen. The first documented reports on the presence of the Buffalo in Italy date back to the 12th-13th century A.D. (Farpa Abbey Archive), especially as a result of the deep Tyrrhenian slope.
The word "Mozzarella" is certainly derived from the term "cut", a forming operation traditionally practised by hand in the final phase of the processing. This term appears for the first time in a cookbook quoted by a papal court cook in the sixteenth century. But already in the 12th century, the monks of the monastery of St. Lawrence in Capua (CE) used to offer, for the feast of the patron saint, a "crop or proof" accompanied by a piece of bread. The Bourbons paid much attention to the breeding of the buffalo so much to create a herd in the royal estate of Carditello where in the middle of the ' 700, they also installed a dairy. In the plain of Volturno and in that of Sele there are still the ancient buffalo, circular constructions in masonry with the center a chimney for the processing of milk and with small rooms shoulderinga to the walls intended for the lodging of Buffalo. Particularly characteristic is that present at the experimental farm "Improsta" in Eboli, regional property.
The area of production is located in the entire territory of the provinces of Caserta and Salerno, in the municipalities of amorous, Dugenta and lamb in the province of Benevento, and in those of Maple, García, Pozzuoli, Quality, Arzano, Thistle, Frattamaggiore, Frattaminore and Mugnano of Naples in the province of Naples, as well as in some municipalities of the provinces of Frosinone, Latina, Rome, Foggia and Isernia.
The buffalo mozzarella di Campana as well as having the DOP brand is also recognized as typical TSG products (traditional speciality guaranteed).
The most accredited thesis on the origins of the designation "Provolone del Monaco" refers to the fact that the housers who landed at dawn in the port of Naples, with their load of provolone from the various locations of the Sorrentine Peninsula, to protect From the cold and humidity, they used to cover themselves with a sack of linen cloak, which was similar to the saio worn by the monks.
Once we arrived in Naples, the people who worked at the market began to call these peasants, monks, and consequently the cheese they were carrying, Provolone del Monaco.
The "Provolone del Monaco DOP" is a semi-hard cheese with spun paste, matured, produced in the area of the Sorrentine Peninsula – Monti Latti, exclusively with raw milk. The specificity of the "provolone del Monaco DOP" is the result of a set of factors typical of the production area, in particular the organoleptic characteristics of the milk produced by bovine animals bred on the territory, the process of transformation that It still mirrors today the artisan traditions and the particular microclimate that characterizes the working and maturing environments.
Through the recognition of the PDO is now possible the recovery and enhancement of the entire zootechnical system of the production area, founded in particular on the breeding of bovine TGA (autochthonous genetic type) Agerolese. Originally from the Province of Naples, the Agerolese breed is widespread today only in the municipalities of Agerola and Gragg. It results from crossings of bovine animals of Frisian, Bruna and Jersey with the local indigenous population and is considered in danger of extinction by the FAO. The color of the mantle can vary from brown to black with a hemming of light hair around the muzzle also dark. The Agerolese cow has very modest yields, but, in contrast, produces a milk of the highest quality, also due to the geographical area of the Suckler mountains and the unique and pristine environment that is found there. This milk, in mixture, is used to produce not only the Provolone del Monaco but also the unequalled Fiordilatte and other cheeses with spun paste of renowned goodness typical of the area.
The distinctive features of the Provolone del Monaco DOP are
-A slightly elongated melon shape with a minimum weight of 2.5 kg and a maximum of 8;
-a thin crust of yellowish colour, almost smooth, with slight longitudinal inlets in correspondence of the raffia ties used for the support of the couple that divide the provolone into a minimum of 6 faces;
-a maturing period of at least six months, with a maximum yield of 9 kg per hectolitre of processed milk,
-A cream-coloured paste with yellowish tones, elastic, compact, uniform and without flaking, soft and with typical dark circles (a "Partridge's Eye");
-A fat content on the dry matter not less than 40.5%;
-A sweet and buttery taste and a light and pleasant spicy taste.
The pasture of the Milky Mountains, made from aromatic herbs present almost all year where the animals freely graze, and the seasoning environments give this cheese an intense aroma and taste, flavours exalted by the length of the seasoning Same. After 7-8 months the provolone tends to turn yellow further, thickening the crust and assuming a more spicy taste and a more consistent aspect of the dough, although still quite soft and always free of flakes. The technique of production of this cheese is very old and laborious: one works the raw milk of every single milking or at the maximum of two successive MILKINGSS and mixes with the goat's rennet. From the coagulation of raw milk, you get the curd, which is broken up to the size of small grains, using a wooden tool called "Sassa", then you move on to the following operations of scalding and spinning. The spinning is rather complex, so that, in some cases, to twist the curd, two people are required to intervene. When the dough has reached the desired consistency, the moulding is made which can be pear, or cylinder. The cheeses obtained are tied in pairs and hung on special frames, where they are left to mature, first at room temperature of drying from ten to twenty days and then in ambient temperature between 8 and 15 °c for a period of not less than six months . It follows the brine, drying and curing that is carried out in cellars for a period ranging from 4 to 18 months. But already at nine months the product reaches its excellence, with the peel that from month to month tends to darken until you reach the typical coloration of ripe hazelnuts. The "Provolone del Monaco DOP" is produced with milk from the for at least 20%, from bovines of type Agerolese registered in the register, and in the remaining quota (80%) from bovines of different breeds (Frisian, Brunalpina, Red dappled, Jersey, Podolica and local mestizo) Bred exclusively in the geographical area provided for by the specification.
The "Provolone del Monaco DOP" is a product of particular value, with a very high selling price, which can vary depending on the length of the aging time, but which for its particular characteristics can give the dishes a taste out of the municipality. An example is the recipe of "pasta and potatoes", food of poor origin that with the addition of a minimum quantity of Provolone del Monaco, both grated and in thin flakes, makes it become rich in perfumes and flavors and make it elevate to great Specialties. But the product, as well as enhancing many other early typical of Campania, is in the appetizers and at the end of the meal that makes fall in love at first sight the consumer for its intense taste and out of the ordinary.
Livestock breeding in the Milking Mountains – Sorrento Peninsula dates back to 260 BC, when the Picentini, the first inhabitants of these mountains, transformed the space taken from the woods into farmland and began the activity of animal husbandry Domestic, especially lattifera-aptitude cattle. The productions obtained from these animals have entered the tradition, culture and economy of this area, consolidating over the centuries. Decisive was the work of the Bourbons, which favoured the genetic improvement of the types bred through works of intersection with excellent results. It goes in particular mentioned the patient work of the military of Ventura Avitabile that, through the crossroads of mestizo of Bruna and Podolica with the race Jersey, came to obtain specimens of a new race, the Agerolese precisely.
The first detailed description of the breed dates back to 1909, curated by Dr. E. Mollo describing the breeding of bovine animals in the district of Castellammare and especially in the Sorrentine Peninsula, gives a detailed description of the cattle bred in this territory. But it was only in 1952, when the breed standard was presented to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, that it officially took the name "Agerolese". In recent decades, however, other races have been introduced gradually replacing to autochthonous ones, such as Agerolese, improving quantitative performance but to the detriment certainly of the qualitative aspect of the product. With the growing interest in the typical quality products of the territory and the careful recovery of the agro-alimentary traditions There has been a gradual revaluation of the native breeds and this has also happened in the area of the milkers, thus allowing to be able Start the recognition of the PDO. The Provolone del Monaco, but also the Fior di latte, the Scamorza are born in this area, always known for the goodness of its cheeses. Of the origin of the denomination it was said, linked to the name of the mantle, similar to a saio, used by the transporters that by sea came to sell their product in Naples, capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
The specificity of the "provolone del Monaco DOP" stems from the typicality of the raw material, which is skilfully transformed by the skillful hands of the housers who jealously guard the secrets of the workmanship of the past. Not negligible frame of this process is the particular microclimate that we find in the working and maturing environments. It is precisely the whole of these breeding and transformation characteristics, inserted in such a variegated environment, which contributes to giving a perfume and an unequalled taste to the product.
The production of the "Provolone del Monaco DOP" concerns the province of Naples, in particular the Sorrentine Peninsula and the territory of the Milking mountains. In particular, the geographical area of cattle breeding, production and curing of the "Provolone del Monaco DOP", are bounded by the entire territories of the following municipalities, falling in the province of Naples: Agerola, Casola of Naples, Castellammare of Stabia, Gragg, letters, Massa Lubrense, Meta, Piano di Sorrento, Pimonte, Sant'Agnello, Sorrento, Santa Maria La charity, Vico Equense.
The Pomodoro San Marzano is known and appreciated all over the world for its characteristics, which are exalted by the transformation in "peeled". The presence of a number of concurrent factors such as: the Mediterranean climate and the extremely fertile soil and excellent structure, the ability and experience acquired by farmers in the area of production over the decades, has contributed to its success in World, Crowned, in 1996, by the recognition of the European Union as the D.O.P.
The intrinsic characteristics that have exalted the product, thus encouraging its knowledge and its consumption are: typically bittersweet taste, elongated form of the berry with parallel longitudinal depressions, bright red color, low presence of seeds and Placental fibres, skin of bright red colour and easy peelability. These, together with the chemical-physical characteristics, make it unmistakable, both in the fresh and transformed state.
The protected designation of origin designates only the product "peeled" and the type "peeled in fillets", coming from the processing of the fruits belonging to the San Marzano type or to improved lines of it (the specification identifies two standards of Product). The product released for consumption must have very precise technological characteristics: uniform red colour with A/b colorimetric ratio of not less than 2.2; Elongated and parallelepiped shape, with length from 60 to 80 mm; Absence of foreign flavors and odours; The weight of the drained not less than 65% of the net weight; Refractometry residue not less than 4%; PH between 4.2 and 4.5. It is allowed the addition of salt (max 3% of the P.N.), basil leaves, tomato juice (but exclusively of S. Marzano).
The cultivation technique of the fresh product foresees the vertical breeding of the plants with the use of supports, thus respecting the secular tradition, even if, for the high number of hours of manpower required, this technique strongly affects the costs of Production.
The "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" is one of the oldest and most typical products of the Campania agriculture, so much that it is even represented in the scene of the traditional Neapolitan nativity.
In fact, in different territories of Campania, there are groupings of eco-types with berries of small size, the so-called "cherry tomatoes", which are distinguished from each other by typicality, rusticity and organoleptic quality. The most famous have always been those still widespread on the slopes of Vesuvius. The "cherry Tomato of the Piennolo del Vesuvio DOP" brings together old cultivars and local biotypes, combined with more or less similar morphological and qualitative characteristics, the selection of which has been cured in the decades by the farmers themselves. The names of these types are the popular ones attributed by the same local producers, such as "Fiaschella", "bulb", "Patanara", "Principe Borghese" and "King Umberto", traditionally cultivated for centuries in the same territory of origin.
The distinguishing characteristics, at the technical-mercantile level, of the product eligible for protection are:
In the fresh state: fruits of oval or slightly pruniforme with pointed apex and frequent ribbing of the stalking part, thick skin of ruby red colour, size not more than 25 g, pulp of high consistency and red colour, lively flavor Intense and sweet-sour;
Preserved in the Piennolo: dark red skin color, pulp of good texture of red color, intense and lively flavor. The "Piennoli" or "snaps" have a weight, at the end of preservation, varying between 1 and 5 kilograms.
To the effects of the protection action it was found that the peculiar aspect of typicality that unites the Vesuvian tomatoes is the ancient practice of preservation "Al Piennolo", that is a technical characteristic to bind some bunches or "bodies" of Ripe cherry tomatoes, to form a large cluster that is then suspended in ventilated rooms, thus ensuring the optimum preservation of the precious harvest until the end of winter. Over the months the tomato, while losing its Turgor, takes on a unique and delicious taste, especially Neapolitans particularly appreciate to prepare delicious and inviting sauces. It is precisely the system of preservation to the "Piennolo" which, favouring a slow maturation, also allows a long preservation, with the consequent possibility of consuming the product "natural" until the following spring.
The tomato of Vesuvius is appreciated on the market both in the fresh state, sold freshly collected on the local markets, that in the typical shape preserved in hanging-"Al Piennolo"-, or also as preserved in glass, according to an ancient family recipe of the area, Called "A Pacchetelle", also contemplated in the PDO production regulations.
Ordinarily the harvest is carried out severing the whole bunches, when on them are present at least 70% of red cherry tomatoes, while the others are being ripened. This ancient practice allows to procrastinate the consumption of the berries, intact and untransformed, throughout the winter after the harvest, up to seven to eight months, using ventilated rooms and without the support of modern conservation technologies.
The peculiarities of the "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" are the high consistency of the peel, the force of attachment to the peduncle, the high concentration of sugars, acids and other soluble solids that make it a long-preservation product during the Which none of its organoleptic qualities undergo alterations. These peculiarities are deeply linked to the environment factors typical of the geographical area in which the tomato is cultivated where the soils, of volcanic origin, are constituted by pyroclastic material originated from the eruptive events of the volcanic complex Sum-Vesuvius.
In this environment of choice, the quality of the tomato reaches peaks of excellence. Its richness in organic acids determines the liveliness or "acidulità" of Taste, which is the distinctive character of the tomato of Vesuvius. This, in addition to deriving from a genetic peculiarity, is an indication of a method of cultivation with low environmental impact and with reduced use of irrigation water, which makes this crop particularly suitable for a protected area, such as that of the National Park of Vesuvius.
The "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" for its qualities is a fundamental ingredient of Neapolitan cuisine and Campana in general, and has a great versatility in the kitchen.
Alongside traditional spaghetti with clams and other seafood, local chefs undertake to use it on many other dishes, including a variation of the delicious Neapolitan pizza.
The cultivation of Piennolo tomatoes on the slopes of Vesuvius has undoubtedly ancient and well-documented roots.
To limit ourselves to the most illustrious historical testimonies, news about the product are brought back from Bruni, in 1858, in his "of the vegetables and their cultivation in the city of Naples", where it speaks of cherry tomatoes, very tasty, which "are maintained excellent until Spring, as long as tied in Serti and suspended at the attics. "
Another reliable literary source is that of Palmieri, who on the Yearbook of the Royal High School of Agriculture in Portici (current Faculty of Agricultural), of 1885, speaks of the practice in the area Vesuvian to preserve the berries of the variety P ' Apennines in Shaded and ventilated places.
Francesco De Rosa, another professor of the School of Portici, on "Horticultural Italy" of November 1902, indicated that the old "Cerasella" Vesuvian had been gradually replaced by the type "a salts", more suitable for the preservation to the Piennolo. De Rosa is also the first researcher who exhaustively reports the entire cultivation technique of vesuvian tomatoes, intending that it was developing in the area an entire economy around this product, from the production of seedlings from The sale of the stored product.
Even the Prof. Marzio Chapman, of the Faculty of Agriculture of Portici, in his text of 1916, agrees with the previous sources, both on the varietal description and on the methods of production, dedicating entire parts of the text to describe meticulously the cultivation technique and Especially by providing data, even economic, that help to understand the laboriousness and complexity of this type of product.
The typical area of production and preservation of the tomato of Piennolo coincides with the entire extension of the volcanic complex of the Somma-Vesuvius, including its sloping slopes up almost to the level of the sea.
In particular, the area of production and conditioning provided for in the specification of the "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" includes:
- The entire territory of the following municipalities of the province of Naples: Boscoreale, Boscotrecase, Searcha, Herculaneum, mass of sum, Octavian, Pollena Trocchia, Portici, Sant'Anastasia, San Giorgio a Cremato, San Giuseppe Vesuviano, San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, sum Vesuvian, Terzigno, Torre Annunziata, Torre del Greco, Trecase,
- The part of the territory of the municipality of Nola bounded perimeter: From the provincial road of Nola-Rione Trieste (for the section that goes by the name of "Constantinople"), from the "facades Rosario", the limit of the municipality of Ottaviano and the limit of the municipality of Sum Vesuvian.
The extra virgin olive oil "TERRE AURUNCHE", according to the production regulations, requires the use of olives coming for at least 70% from the "sexing" cultivar. The sexing is native to the area of production (its name derives from the name of the town Sessa Aurunca, the most extensive municipality of the area of production), while the smaller cultivars envisaged (Carnelian, Itrana and Tonacella) are native to the neighboring territories and Represent an equally important heritage of local biodiversity.
The extra virgin olive oil "Terre Aurunche" at the time of the consumption has excellent physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics, with acidity of less than 0.60 and a good content in polyphenols; Taste with good tones of bitter and spicy, color that goes from straw yellow to green more or less intense. These characteristics, besides the particular varietal composition of the sexing cultivar, are also due to the simultaneous presence of a mild climate and a volcanic soil, rich in macro and microelements essential to the production of olives and of quality oil.
The territory that marks the PDO "TERRE AURUNCHE" is located in the northern part of the province of Caserta, in the area around the extinct volcano of Roccamonfina, in the olive territories of the municipalities of Caianello, Canice, cello, Conca della Campania, mowing the mass, Francolise, Gabby, Marzano Appio, Majors Monte Lungo, Mondragoe, Rocca d ' Evander, Roccamonfina, San Pietro, Sessa Aurunca, Sparanise, Teano and Tora and Piccilli.
The area of olive groves interested in the PDO is estimated at about 6,000 hectares, for an average annual production of oil equal to about 18,000 quintals per year. Bottling companies interested in the production of DOP oil are 15. The average annual turnover is estimated at 2 million euros, considering that the PDO will affect, at the start-up, 10% of the production.
The extra virgin olive oil DOP Sorrento Peninsula presents, at first sight, a beautiful straw-yellow colour, more or less intense, with greenish reflections; Sometimes it's veiled. The olfactory examination reveals remarkable aromatic harmony, with a delicate hint of fruity olive and with fine and pleasant hints of aromatic herbs (especially rosemary and mint). The taste is definitely sweet with harmonious and mild notes of bitter and spicy. It is fluid, balanced and with pleasant spicy nuances. It has clean aftertaste, of green and fresh almond. Acidity never exceeds the value of 0.80%.
The bitterness and the spicy, in the right gradations, blend perfectly, guaranteeing the right balance to the oil; The Mediterranean smells of rosemary are exalted in the combination with the tomato and the dishes that are called to it. Great on grilled fish and vegetables. Original and particularly pleasant its combination with lemon salads, but especially with sorbet and lemon delight, sweets typical of Sorrento.
The oil "Sorrento Peninsula" DOP is obtained from the milling of the Olives Ogliarola or Minucciola (also known as "olive oil"), for not less than 65%; Rotondella, Frantoio or Leccino, either alone or jointly, to an extent not exceeding 35%. The presence of other varieties for a maximum of 20% of the total is also permitted.
The cultivation techniques of the olive groves are the traditional ones of the Sorrentine Peninsula that assure the oil that derives the high and well known qualitative quality. In olive groves, placed on daring terraces sloping towards the sea, the olives are collected rigorously by hand; Only the aid of mechanical means, such as shakers and vibrating combs, which facilitate the collection, which must be carried out by 31 December of each year, is authorised. It is forbidden to use the drains.
The collection shall be carried out no later than 31 December of each year. The olives must be pressed not later than the second day of the harvest. For the extraction of the oil are allowed only mechanical and physical processes that preserve the quality characteristics of the fruit most faithfully. The maximum production of olives per hectare is 90 q.li, with an oil yield of 20%.
The cultivation of olive trees in Sorrento Peninsula dates back to ancient times. The Punta Campanella, which is the extreme promontory of the Gulf of Naples and faces the island of Capri, was dominated by a temple, sacred to the goddess Athena (Minerva) Capo Minerva, erected by the porpoises, Greek settlers. The entire peninsula was consecrated to the goddess of wisdom and the site became a pilgrimage destination for centuries. Along the way the pilgrims bought on the spot the oil, which was produced in abundance, to be offered to the divinity, already held by the Greeks and then by the Romans inventor of the olives and the oil (Oleaeque Minerva Inventrix, as a poem by Virgil recites).
In the entire peninsula were found remnants of minor sanctuaries erected by the Romans and dedicated to Minerva, with the finding also of containers used for the supply of oil. Since then, the olive tree has no longer abandoned these places and, together with citrus and grapevine, dominates and characterizes the entire landscape of the Sorrentine Peninsula.
The particular orographic conditions, which impose expensive terraces, the typical Mediterranean climate, the volcanic nature of the land, make the environment of the peninsula decidedly original and typical, as is the typical oil that is produced there.
The area of production and processing of olive oil DOP Peninsula includes the territories of 13 municipalities of the Sorrentine peninsula and of the Milking mountains, as well as the island of Capri. They are: Gragg, Pimonte, letters, Casola of Naples, Sorrento, Piano di Sorrento, Meta, Sant'Agnello, Massa Lubrense, Vico Equense, Capri, Anacapri and Castellammare di Stabia (the latter only in part).
The extra virgin olive oil "Irpinia Colline Ufita DOP" presents undoubtedly organoleptic characteristics of great value. It is of a green colour, if young, until straw yellow, of different intensity. The sense of smell is fruity, with pleasant herbaceous notes and clear hints of unripe tomato, which can also be perceived distinctly to taste; The tasting is harmonious, with intense, but always pleasant and balanced sensations of bitter and spicy, in harmony with the high content of polyphenols. The acidity, moreover, does not exceed the value of 0.50%, with score to the panel test not less than 7.
The oil "Irpinia Colline Ufita DOP" must derive for not less than 60% from the variety Ravelas (value 85% for new plants); Other local varieties can be used for the remainder, such as the Ogliarola, the Marinese, the Olivella, the Ruveia, the Court vineyard. Extremely small (not more than 10%) the permissible intake of other non-autochthonous varieties, such as Leccino or Frantoio.
The cultivation techniques of the olive groves are the traditional ones of the hills of the Ufita, which assure the oil that derives the high and known qualitative quality. The harvest shall be carried out no later than 31 December of each year and the olives shall be pressed within two days of the harvest. The yield to the mill may not exceed 20%. The oil "Irpinia Colline Ufita DOP" is the result of the perfect harmony between environment, variety, entrepreneurial capacity and tradition, which in Irpinia are very ancient. The production area of the PDO coincides with the cultivation of the most valuable varieties of the Irpina olive growing and which is as to the symbol of the quality olive growing: la Ravele. The Ravele is a cultivar of unknown origin, but at least from ' 500 diffused almost exclusively in the Territory Ufita-Arianese, privileged component of the Mediterranean diet that in this area is characterized on the trinomial wine bread and oil. The remarkable presence of aromatic notes and its intense fruity taste favours the use of this oil on plates of a certain consistency, like soups based on legumes, tasty pasta of the Irpina tradition, soups, bruschetta and grilled meat. Being a product of great value for its category, through the recognition of the PDO can be known and appreciated not only at local level but on national and international markets.
After the wines, now known all over the world, the Irpinia is placed to the attention of the most demanding consumers with its precious oils, collecting on the markets increasing consensus.
Irpini oils are the result of the perfect harmony between environment, variety, entrepreneurial capacity and tradition, which is very ancient here. In fact, the presence of the olive tree in the Avellino dates back to Roman times, as it is widely documented by numerous exhibits. It was precisely the Romans who built the first tools for the pressing of olives and to improve more and more the techniques of oil preservation.
The maximum spread of the olive growing in Irpinia was however in the Angevin era, and then developed in the Aragonese (14th century) and consolidated definitively in the 1800s.
The testimony of the massive presence of the olive tree in the Ufita is provided by the wide expanses of secular trees in the hills of Ariane, the heart of Irpina olive growing. In the only "City of Ariano," in 1794, there were "twelve mills of Olive Mills, called Vulgarly Trappeti, to which the horses are employed to make them turn…", which become, at the beginning of the 800, 29 as stated Nicola faux in the "History of the City of Aryan ":"… there are 29 Trappeti or olive oil mills, such as inside and outside the town.
There are also numerous historical testimonies concerning the great influence that the olive had on the economy of the rural populations of the area that specialized not only in the production of the oil, but also in that of the amphorae, suitable to contain the already Wanted product.
At the dawn of the third millennium, the olive oil of Ufita is still a product laden with mysticism and above all a fundamental component of the famous Mediterranean diet, of which many experts attest to the health-beneficial aspects.
The oil production area "Irpinia hills of the Ufita DOP" in fact coincides with the cultivation of the variety that is as to symbolize the development of the quality olive growing of the Irpinia and not only: the Rave.
In particular, the area comprises 38 municipalities of the Ufita and the middle Valley of the heat, in the province of Avellino, which are: Ariano, Bonito, Carife, Casalbore, Castel Baronia, Castelfranci, Flumeri, Fontanarosa, Frigento, Naples, Greeks, Grottaminarda, Lapio , Luogosano, Melito, Mirabella Eclano, Montagu, Montecalvo, Malik, Montemiletto, Paternopoli, Pietradefusi, St. Nicholas Barony, St. of the Barony, Sant'Angelo to Bait, Savignano, Scampitella, Sturno,
Taurasi, Torella dei Lombardi, Torre le Nocelle, Trevio, Valley, Vallesaccarda, Venticano, Villamaina, Villanova del Battista, Zungoli.
The oil Cilento DOP is obtained from the award of Olives of the varieties of the Rotondella, Ogliarola, Frantoio, Lella and Leccino for at least 85%; They may also compete in other local varieties in the production area to an extent not exceeding 15%.
The oil, for consumption, is straw yellow with good vivacity and intensity; Often limpid, sometimes veiled. The olfactory examination shows a slight hint of fruity, sometimes with hints of apple and green leaves. The taste is soft and delicate of fresh olive, basically sweet with just perceptible vivid notes of bitter and spicy. It is discreetly fluid, with clear hints of pine and hazelnut and almond aftertaste. The acidity is always below the value of 0.70%. The remarkable presence of aromatic notes favours the use of this oil on dishes of a certain consistency, typical of the area of origin, such as grilled fish, wild salads, boiled vegetables, legumes and first courses in general.
The "Cilento" DOP oil is the result of the harmonization of the most modern processing technologies with a millenary tradition. At the agronomic level, particular care is given during the phases of the harvesting, transport and preservation of the olives. In order to be allowed to produce PDO olive oil, it must be collected strictly by hand; The aid of mechanical facilitators, such as shakers and vibrating combs, is authorised; Networks shall be allowed only to facilitate collection operations, which shall be carried out by 31 December each year.
The maximum production of olives per hectare is 110 quintals, while the yield in maximum oil is 22%. The olives must be pressed within 48 hours of harvesting.
The presence of the oil has characterized the cilento landscape for centuries and represents the main, and sometimes unique, resource of the local populations, so as to become an integral part of their daily life.
The olive tree in Cilento, a land of myths and home of the Homonymous National Park, has ancient roots. Recent Archeobotaniche research has documented the presence of the olive tree as early as the 4th century. Bc.. The tradition, on the other hand, wants the first plants to be introduced by the Porpoise settlers, a refugee population of Greek origin. It was in fact to introduce the oldest variety from local oil, the Paris, which resists very well the brackish winds of the area, is very productive even in a dry area like the Cilento and still today gives the oil Cilento the recognized Typical.
The Olive Cilento, between the temples of Paestum and the ruins of Velia, has imposed its presence also to the great Italian poets of the past:… olive trees, always olive trees! In the middle are olive trees, like sheep in bevy… He writes Ungaretti in his lyric of 1933. In the Cilento, also, has lived for many years also the famous American nutritionist Keys, the father of the Mediterranean diet, which precisely in olive oil attributes a prince, as it leads to a reduction in silky cholesterol, improves the functionality of the cardiovascular apparatus, and protects the body, with its kit of phenolic substances, from serious alterations.
The area of production and processing of the DOP Cilento oil includes 62 municipalities, located south of the province of Salerno, all included in the area of the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano and all characterized by the presence of secular olive trees, which They represent the dominant element of the landscape.
The protected geographical name "Fico Bianco del Cilento" refers to the dried product of the cultivar "dotted", a valuable variety of fig diffused throughout the Mezzogiorno. In particular, the protected product is the one derived from a specific type of the cultivar, which has been selected and spread in Cilento over the centuries: the "White of the Cilento".
Product having unique characteristics and of absolute value, appreciated also abroad, the "white fig of Cilento" DOP owes its denomination to the uniform pale yellow colour of the peel of the dried fruits, which becomes brown for the fruits that have Undergone a baking process in the oven. The pulp is of a typical pasty consistency, with a very sweet taste, of amber yellow colour, with mostly empty aches and internal receptacle almost entirely full. These characteristics, considered of excellence for the commercial category of dried figs, are precisely the distinguishing traits that qualify the "Bianco del Cilento" DOP on the markets.
Packaged with natural in different shapes (cylindrical, coronal, spherical, bag) The figs of the Cilento are also marketed in the ancient way, places that is in bulk in baskets made of material of plant origin that can reach even twenty Kilos of weight. A traditional preparation still in use is the one that sees the figs "fenced", which are threaded into two parallel wooden slats to form the "spatulas" or "Mustaccioli".
The "Fico Bianco del Cilento" DOP is also placed on the market with almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, fennel seeds, citrus peels (ingredients from the same production area) or covered with chocolate, or even immersed in rum, with the objective To broaden the range of the offer, especially at Christmas time. More and more sought after are also dried figs and then gilded in the oven, especially those stuffed. Precious, but increasingly rare for high preparation costs, are the worlds figs, without peel, with a clear colour tending to pure white and with a delicious flavour.
The valuable characteristics of the product as described are due, in addition to the intrinsic qualities of the variety, also to the environment of cultivation and processing of fruits. Indeed, the mitigating action of the sea and the barrier posed by the chain of the Apennines to the cold winter currents coming from the northeast, together with the good fertility of the soil and an optimal pluviometric regime represent the ideal conditions Soil-climatic for the production of figs in Cilento. Moreover, it is important to place the right emphasis on the fact that, in addition to cultivation, the drying and processing phases of the product are carried out in full in the geographical area of production, in agricultural structures and rural buildings, in a harmonious process of Interaction between product, man and environment. The simplicity of cultivation and the resistance of the plant to phytopathological adversity, then, have allowed the cultivation to gain also the liking of the Cilento farmer who has always placed the fig tree in his company, in specialized culture or Subsidiary.
It should not be forgotten, moreover, the function carried out by this cultivation in the maintenance of the landscape and the rural area, from which it seems almost inseparable.
The introduction into the fig Cilento seems to be before the sixth century A. C. It is to be attributed to the Greek settlers who in this area had founded several cities.
Famous authors of the Roman era have praised the characteristics of the agricultural products of Cilento including dried figs. In many documents, in fact, it seems obvious how the dried fig tree is the identification of the area of Cilento. Cato, and then Varro, said that dried figs were commonly used in Cilento and Lucania as a food base for the labor employed in the fields. It is easy to understand how this millennial coexistence has strongly influenced the local culture, which transpires in idioms, in stories, in fairy tales and in everything that is an expression of the human imagination.
Still, in the middle of 1400 is documented, in the "Quaterno customs of the Marine of Cilento" (1486), the existence of a flourishing activity of production and marketing of dried figs, started on the main Italian markets as a valuable food. The "Fico Bianco del Cilento" DOP has gradually evolved, from "bread of the poor", as it was once defined, to precious food to be consumed especially at Christmas time.
Figs, therefore, have always been a significant source of income but also basic food for local populations in difficult historical periods, thanks to the abundance of them and the possibility of storing them for the whole time of the year with Drying. In fact, it owes its secular tenacity and the capacity of Cilento producers if today we have a product of absolute quality. Fig plants for millennia have thus contributed to characterize the rural landscape of Cilento becoming, together with the olive, the icon of the local peasant civilization..
The production area of the "Fico Bianco del Cilento" DOP includes 68 municipalities, located south of Salerno, from the coastal hills of Agropoli to the Bussento and largely included in the area of the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano.
The "Onion noceri DOP" characterizes the bulbs of the species Allium Cepa L. (onion), produced for over 2000 years in the Pompeian agro-Nocasso. The local varietal types referred to the PDO are: Nocera (variety registered in the CE Register of Horticultural), early the Queen, early Wonder, cold Marzatica, Hot Marzatica, Nocerese, Bianca di Castellammare, San Michele, Giugnese.
The distinguishing characteristics, at the technical-mercantile level, of the "Onion Nocerium DOP" are: a calibre with a collection of 2-4 cm (it is part of the medium-small size onions), a cylindrical, tunic-shaped bulb, crushed to the poles, with light Enlarged at the base of the leaves, color of the inner and outer tunics entirely white, succulent pulp and sweet taste, leaves of intense green colour, of linear form ending with tip.
Being a spring-harvested onion (March to June) is mainly used for fresh consumption, not having a high propensity for preservation.
The "Onion Caceri DOP" owes its valuable characteristics that make it distinguish from other analogues produced above all to the particular and exceptional conditions geo-soil where it is cultivated. It is known that the soils of the agro-sarnese and the crusty-Pompeian area, for their volcanic origin, are loose, flat and of high fertility and they give to the local agricultural products characteristics of high quality, as in the case of the Pomodoro San Marzano Dop. Precisely, the zoocoenoses conditions and the absolute vocation of the climatic environment are the basis of the exceptional qualitative value of the vegetable productions of the area. and the "Onion Noceri DOP" for its peculiar and distinct specificity, after San Marzano, is precisely the most cultivated species in the Agro. Due to its qualitative and organoleptic characteristics, mainly linked to the tenderness of the bulb and to the sweetness of the pulp, a little acrid and spicy, which make it a product of high digestibility, is particularly required on the national markets and International. Wanted by the local chefs is almost always tasted fresh next to green salads, tomatoes but is also present in the first dishes and used to garnish many other delicacies.
The "Onion Noceri DOP", in addition to its typicality owes its reputation on the markets also because of its high quality product characteristics. This is because the finished product, from the moment after the harvest, undergoes a series of processes that give it that essential added value today to compete on the global market: peeling of the bulb, washing, selection, partial cutting of Radical tuft and leaves, tying in bunches, conditioning. The product released for consumption is classified as a first-class merchant.
Certain testimonies of the presence of the onion in the Agro date back over 2000 years ago: In ancient Pompeii, in fact, local onions are depicted in the paintings of the "Sarno", the chapel where the Lari, the protectors of the house were kept. In fact, even in Pompeii, as in Egypt and Greece, the onion, for its beneficial and curative effects, was considered a sacred identity. The painting synthesizes graphically the reality of the local variety, which already at the time, represented an important and typical expression of the local rurality. The Sarno River is depicted, mythologized with human form, which, from a protector, observes and protects the production and trade of the onions that, produced in its fertile Valle del Sarno, are transported with a boat on its waters to the city of Pompeii. Unique and extraordinary testimony that certifies the historical vocation of the area to this culture. The onions depicted are white and small, almost identical to those referred to today as the "Onion Noceri DOP". From that it is deduced that the Agro Sarnese-Nocasso-Pompei historically has the optimum conditions for the cultivation of onions and that for over 20 centuries on this area have been cultivated and handed down with the same phenotypic characteristics and very Probably with the same germ plasma as those that are still part of the "Onion Noceri DOP".
Other historical quotes report that in the Middle Ages the onions of the Agro were conferred on the market together with the oranges, lemons and chestnuts of the surrounding areas. The famous Hippocratica Civitas of the medical school Salerno, flourishing already at the end of 1400, in the regimen Salernitanum the Sanitations advises its use.
At the end of the 1800s and in the early years of ' 900, the biotypes referred to the "onion noceri DOP" are reported and described in agronomy manuals and in the catalogues of the most important seed producers. Even after the Second World War the cultivation of the white onion had an important importance in the local production systems. With the boom of the tomato and the other species horticultural the southern horticulture and Campana in particular was much appreciated and demanded by the international market favouring a dynamic agri-food chain that in the agro Sarnese-Noceri found its Maximum expression. The "Onion Caceri DOP" also had a significant increase in production and has already been involved in the development of Agro agriculture for several decades.
The production area of the "Onion noceri DOP" is concentrated in the agro-Sarnese in the province of Salerno and in the Pompeian-crusted area in the province of Naples. The municipalities concerned are 21, of which those Salerno are: Rome, St. George, Nocera Inferior, Nocera Superiore, Pagani, Roccapiemonte, Sarno, San Marzano on the Sarno, S. Egidio del Monte Albino, San Valentino thorium, Hull, are, while those in Province of Naples are: Boscoreale, Castellammare di Stabia, Gragg, Poggiomarino, Pompeii, Santa Maria La charity, Sant'Antonio Abate, Striato and Terzigno.
Caciocavallo silane DOP is a semi-hard cheese, with spun paste, produced with cow's milk of different breeds, including the Podolica, a typical native breed of the inner areas of the southern Apennines. The production of the Silane Caciocavallo begins with the coagulation of fresh milk at a temperature of 36-38 °c, using veal or kid rennet. The maturation phase consists of a vigorous lactic fermentation, whose duration varies on average from 4 to 10 hours and can be said completed when the dough is in the conditions of being spun. It follows a characteristic operation, consisting in the formation of a kind of cordon, which is moulded until it reaches the final form. The shape, spherical, oval or screws, varies according to the different geographical areas of production. The weight is between 1 and 2.5 kg. The crust, thin, smooth, with a marked straw color on the surface, can show the presence of light inlets due to ties. The pasta is homogeneous or with slight, white or straw-yellow colour. The flavor is initially sweet until it is spicy with advanced maturing. The silane Caciocavallo can be consumed as table cheese or used as an ingredient for many recipes typical of southern Italy. Thanks to its nutritional qualities, it is particularly suitable for the diets of children, elderly and sportsmen.
The most accredited thesis on the origin of the designation "Caciocavallo" makes it derive from the custom of hanging the forms of cheese, in pairs, on horseback of Poles of wood, arranged in the vicinity of Hearths. The first author describing the technique used by the Greeks in the preparation of cheese is Hippocrates in 500 BC. Later, several Latin authors, including Columella and Pliny, treated cheese in their own works. In particular, Pliny exalts the qualities of the "butter", ancestor of our Caciocavallo, called "Delicate food". Instead, the designation "silane" derives from the ancient origins of the product linked to the Sila plateau.
The production of this cheese is located in the interior areas of the regions Calabria, Basilicata, Campania, Molise and Puglia. In Campania, partially, all the provinces are concerned.