In all the production areas of the buffalo mozzarella, then the provinces of Benevento, Salerno, Caserta, Naples and others in the area of the PDO "Mozzarella di Buffalo Bell", from the processing of the whey of the mozzarella is also obtained the ricotta, which can be consumed fresh or dried.
The fresh buffalo ricotta has a milky colour and soft texture and is obtained by heating the whey resulting from the processing of raw milk for the production of buffalo mozzarella up to a temperature of about 90 degrees. The serum is then added salt enough to get the right flavor of the product.
To obtain, instead, the dried buffalo ricotta, which is a compact paste, it is necessary that the shapes season in the cell for about 10 days and then are left at least one month to dry. They are then removed from the containers and left to ripen another 30 days, until they are cleaned from the moulds, deprived of thin rind and put under vacuum.
The extra virgin olive oil DOP Colline Salernitane presents, to consumption, a beautiful colour that goes from green to straw yellow more or less intense; It's clear, sometimes veiled. The smell shows a definite and ample scent of clean olive fruit, with discreet notes of green leaf, grass and unripe tomato. The taste reveals a decisive and persistent taste, pleasantly bitter and spicy, rightly full-bodied, with a good and balanced structure and clear hints of artichoke, thistle and bitter vegetables. The aftertaste is clean. Acidity is always less than 0.70%.
The oil is obtained from the Olives Award of the autochthonous varieties of the area of production or of ancient introduction, alone or jointly: Rotondella, Frantoio, Carpellese or Nostra for at least 65%; Ogliarola and Leccino to an extent not exceeding 35%, while the presence of other local varieties is permitted for a maximum of 20%.
The remarkable presence of aromatic notes favours the use of this oil on plates of a certain consistency, like soups based on legumes, tasty pasta of the tradition of campana and grilled fish.
The cultivation techniques of the olive groves are the traditional ones of the area of the Salernitane Hills, which assure to the oil that derives the high and known qualitative quality. In Some districts, very innovative technical and organizational solutions have been established, such as the harvesting and the mechanical pruning of the olives. The olives intended for the production of "Colline Salernitane" DOP oil must be collected by hand only by 31 December each year; The aid of mechanical means, such as shakers and vibrating combs, is authorized. The harvested olives must be stored and transported in perforated crates with a maximum capacity of 25 Kg. And not later than the second day of the harvest. For the extraction of the oil are allowed only mechanical and physical processes that preserve as closely as possible the quality characteristics of the fruit.
The maximum production of olives must not exceed 120 quintals per hectare and the yield in oil may not exceed 20%.
The extra virgin olive oil DOP "Colline Salernitane" has very ancient roots, as it derives from autochthonous varieties that have always been present in the Salerno. The oil derives its typical character from the peculiarity of the territory, endowed with connotations Pedoclimatic, park, historical, cultural and economic absolutely original. It is produced in an area strongly suitable to the cultivation of olives, characterized by a particularly rich and original varietal heritage.
Certain reports make it trace the cultivation to the ancient porpoises, settlers of Magna Graecia, who began to spread it in the plain of the alene and in the surrounding hilly areas. It was then through the occupation of the territory by the Romans that the olive growing spread throughout the area Salerno. Even today, some places derive their name from the presence and cultivation of olive groves: Oliveto Citra, Olivella, Ogliara, etc.
Even today, walking through this territory of exceptional beauty, it is easy to come across millenary olive trees of great size, where the history of the local populations, to which the olive has assured, in the most difficult moments, sure Livelihood.
The area of production and processing of extra virgin olive oil DOP Colline Salernitane comprises 86 municipalities of the province of Salerno, present in a vast olive area that includes: The Amalfi Coast, the valley of the Heat, the Picentini, the sapwood, The upper and Middle Sele, the hills of Tanagro and part of the Vallo di Diano.
It can be said that the Neapolitan pizza is the most popular dish in the world and certainly one of the most appreciated. The pizza itself has very ancient origins and the assumptions concerning its geographical origin and the etymology of its name are numerous and still very uncertain.
What we know for sure is that it is in Naples that this dish has reached the excellence, making that today "pizza" and "pizzeria" are the most famous Italian words in the world, and that the pizza has become a real symbol of the city.
Although today there are many different condiments, what we identify as the Neapolitan pizza Vera and artisan is certainly born after ' 700, after that, that appreciated and spread the use of tomatoes in the kitchen, vegetables that imported from the Americas were considered very harmful at first.
The tomatoes are the fundamental condiment for the preparation of the real pizza, present together with olive oil and oregano in marinara and olive oil, mozzarella and basil in the Daisy, the tricolour pizza invented in the 1800s in honour of Queen Margaret of Savoy. Certainly, in addition to the genuineness of the ingredients of the condiment, it is essential that of the ingredients of the dough: water, fresh brewer's yeast and sea salt and that must be worked carefully and then left to rise a first time.
The forming and the stables follow a second leavening, which precedes another phase of processing, during which the pizza is flattened and seasoned and, finally, cooked in the wood-fired oven. The preparation of pizza Verae is considered a real art, of which, beyond the geographical origins, the city of Naples has earned the paternity.
The protected Geographical indication "white calf of the central Apennines" refers to meat from bovine animals, males and females, exclusively of Chianina, Marche and Romagnola breeds, aged between 12 and 24 months. These breeds have in fact significant common morphological features such as: The apical black pigmentation (skin, manangan, tongue and palate, etc.), the white mantle that occurs Fromentino at birth and in the first three months of life, the somatic structure.
Common characteristics of quality are also: the particular precociousness (the typical age of slaughter is between 16 and 20 months), the characteristics of accretion, the yield to the slaughterhouse (62-64%), and the excellent quality of the meat that is lean, sapid and to Low cholesterol content.
The PGI "white calf of the central Apennines", the only denomination attributed to fresh beef in Italy, has in fact wanted to legitimize the value of the best Italian beef breeds with white mantle: Chianina, which has conquered Fame in the gastronomic world for the mythical "Florentine Beefsteak", the Marche, ancient breed of meat and work in the fields very widespread also in the interior areas of Campania, the Romagna, known for its meats of exceptional quality.
The "white calf of the central Apennines" IGP owes its reputation to the fine meats of the above breeds, particularly succulent, as well as nutrients and the superior commercial characteristics: bright red, fine grain, firm, firm and elastic at the same time, with small infiltrations of fat (white) that ply the muscle mass.
Qualities derived from the breed of the animal but also from the diet during the fattening period. The highly nutritious value of the meat of the "white Calf of the central Apennines" IGP is constituted by the high rate of proteins of high biological value, the low fat content (the average value of the PGI is 2%), the excellent iron content, in the form More easily absorbed by the body, and the good percentage of vitamins in group B. The livestock intended for the production of the PGI meat, identified and enrolled in the Herd books, is bred according to the rules prescribed by the production regulations and branded in focus.
The marking shall be carried out at the slaughterhouse by an expert appointed by the inspection body. The logo must be impressed on the surface of the carcase, in correspondence with the outer face of the 18 cuts of meat provided by the specification. The meat is placed on sale at the cut or in sealed packages and always in a contracted outlets that undertake to keep such products separate from the other meats.
The exceptional fame conquered in the kitchen by the meat of the "white Calf of the central Apennines" IGP does not need any other specifications: the tenderness and taste of the exquisite steaks, grilled or fried, roast, spit or baked, Boiled, of stew, recall only the goodness and value of ancient Italian food traditions.
The town of Gragg, in the province of Naples is now famous on the international level for the high quality of durum wheat semolina pasta that is produced by its many ancient pasta. In Gragg the production of pasta has its roots in very remote times: already in ' 500 it was realized that its geographical position was particularly suitable for the production of pasta.
It rises, in fact, on top of a valley, on which flow numerous mountain sources whose spring water, besides feeding the mills, gives to the pasta a very characteristic taste. Moreover, the warm climate, but ventilated by the sea breeze, favours the drying which, in ancient times, took place in the open air, along the city streets in conditions of naturally constant temperature and humidity, which guaranteed the taste and the perfect Preservation of the dry product. Thus, in the seventeenth century the first family-run pasta sprang up and soon the city became a very renowned industrial centre, whose numerous pasta still today follow the productive rules of essential importance: the use of semolina of Durum wheat and artisanal processing, characterized by the drawing in bronze and the subsequent natural drying, which guarantee the pasta of gragg a high quality.
Three million tons of parcels of dough in a year, for a consumer reservoir estimated at over 6 million people and a production growth estimated at around 10% in the last year are significant data that testify to the viability of a sector Strategic for the regional economy. The fund also employs more than 300 people in the city pasta, or 5% of the total national workforce of the sector. The Gragg pasta is now sold in 42 different countries, but the international market is expanding. Genuine are mainly the ingredients of the pasta gragnanese.
According to the rules of production, the "Pasta of Gragg" is the product obtained from the dough of durum wheat semolina with the most pure water of the local aquifer, with a particular scent of ripe wheat and a characteristic flavor Savory, with a decided taste.
The Gragg pasta is characterized by a wrinkled appearance, typical of the bronze drawing, and the baking has a firm and supple consistency, with an excellent and long seal. The instance of recognition was presented by the Gragg City of Pasta consortium that brings together most of the local pasta and represents 90% of the area's production both in terms of volumes and turnover.
The distinguishing characteristics of the "" round "are represented: from the perfectly deformed shape of the seed (which is the shelled hazelnut), which has white pulp, consisting of the aromatic flavour, and the Perisperma (the inner film) Thin and easily detachable. It is also particularly suitable for roasting, peeling and calibrating, also for the medium and homogeneous size of the fruit. For these valuable characteristics it is particularly suitable for industrial processing and is therefore strongly demanded by the industries for the production of pasta and grain, as well as, as raw material, for the preparation of confectionery specialties of Great consumption. In the area of origin it is also used as an ingredient in the preparation of a varied range of delicacies, including: treats, cakes, ice creams, creams, but also unusual first courses and even hazelnut liqueurs.
But the "core of the PGI" IGP lends itself particularly to the shape and quality of the fruit, to direct consumption, both in shell and above all as a whole pitted snack, and it is this form of consumption that has stimulated a new renewed interest in this Product. To the natural or covered with chocolate, in honey or in nougat, the "core of the" "" of the IGP "is gaining, even abroad, the favour of the consumers.
Being a medium-early cultivar, the harvest of the fruits usually starts already from the Third decade of August, after which, the hazelnuts are dried to bring them to a humidity of 5-7% and finally they are deposited in fresh and ventilated places, free of odours and humidity.
The highly nutritional value of the "atherosclerosis" means that its consumption protects against cardiovascular diseases, thanks to a concentration of monounsaturated fatty substances, such as oleic acid, which have the function of limiting Strongly cholesterol levels in the blood stream. It is also rich in vitamins E, B, C, as well as minerals such as iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and selenium, essential for the correct functioning of the cellular system.
The protected Geographical indication "Melannurca Campana" refers to one of the most famous Italian apple varieties and most appreciated by consumers: the Annurca. Defined the "Queen of Apples", in fact, the Annurca is always known mainly for the outstanding quality of its fruits, crispy pulp, compact, white, pleasantly sour and juicy, with characteristic aroma and very fine perfume, a real delight For connoisseurs. The fruit is medium-small, of flattened form-round, slightly asymmetrical, with short and weak stalk. The peel, smooth, waxy, medium rusty in the peduncle cavity, is yellow-green, with streaks of red on about 60-70% of the surface at full maturity, percentage of sovraccolore that reaches 80-90% after the period of redness to Earth. The "Melannurca Campana" IGP always claims healthy virtues: highly nutritious for the high content in vitamins (B1, B2, PP and C) and minerals (potassium, iron, phosphorus, manganese), rich in fiber, regulates intestinal functions, is diuretic, particularly suitable To children and elderly people, it is often indicated in diets to the sick and in particular to diabetics. Even for its exceptional acid/sugar ratio, its organoleptic qualities are not reflected in other varieties of apples. A recent research of the Department of Food Science of the University of Naples Federico II has shown that the Apple Annurca halves oxidative damage to gastric epithelial cells. Its Gastroprotettiva action depends on the richness in phenolic compounds, which are able to prevent the oxidative damage of the gastric apparatus and to help fight the gastric diseases related to the action of free radicals. One of the elements of typicality that certainly characterize the "Melannurca Campana" IGP is the reddening of apples in the so-called "Applei". They are made up of small plots of land, adequately arranged in such a way as to avoid water stagnations, of a width not exceeding 1.50 meters on which are spread layers of soft material Vario: Once used hemp, today replaced by needles of Pine, wood shavings or other plant material. For the protection against excessive solar radiation, the apples are protected by various kinds of preparation. During the stay in the apples, the fruits are placed on a file exposing the less reddened part, are then periodically turned over and carefully chosen, discarding those damaged or rotten. It is precisely this practice, aimed at completing the ripening of fruits by adopting traditional methods and procedures carried out by hand, to exalt the qualitative characteristics of the "Melannurca Campana" IGP, giving it those values of typicality that no Other Apple can boast. Two of the types provided by the production regulations, with two distinct varietal indications on the label: The classical "Annurca" and the direct descendant "Annurca Rossa del Sud", its natural mutant, spread in the area of production for over twenty years, which has the Advantage of producing red peel fruits already on the plant. The most valuable fruits, especially from the organoleptic point of view, according to the experts are those coming from plants grafted on Franco, reared at full wind and with scarce irrigation contributions. The undoubted organoleptic characteristics of this apple, so far appreciated above all by the southern consumers, are progressively conquering also other markets, thanks also to the recognition of the protection mark and the entry into the channels of Large organized distribution. Besides the juices, of great nutritional value, are also the liqueurs obtained from the Annurche, as well as the sweets (tarts and Sfogliatelle on all, but also the mythical and traditional "baked apples" baked). Recently, through a food education programme of the Campania region, the "Melannurca Campana" IGP is proposed for the consumption of children visiting the city of science in the commercial form of the "fourth range" (sealed package of a peeled apple and Sliced can keep the freshness and aroma unchanged for days).
The "Brown of Roccadaspide IGP", from the name of the type from which it derives, is part of the genetic group of chestnuts present in Campania referable to the cultivar-mother "Brown of Avellino".
The distinctive characteristics of the "Brown Roccadaspide IGP" are represented by an average size of the fruits (80-85 fruits per Kg) of predominantly semi-spherical shape, sometimes round. The Peel (pericarp) is thin and brownish brown, tendingly reddish, with dark striaes, easily detachable. The seed has a episperma thin, smooth, not very thorough in the seed, quite adherent with a setting of less than 5% and white-milky pulp, consistent. A distinctive character of this product is the remarkable sugar content that makes it very welcome also for the fresh consumption and the crispy texture and little powder.
For the valuable technological characteristics of the fruits, the "Brown of Roccadaspide IGP" is among the few varieties of chestnuts Campania that can be defined botanically and Merceologicamente "Brown type" and is therefore particularly required for the processing Industrial (more than 90% of the commercial destination), while remaining equally interesting for the destination to the market of fresh, for use mainly as chestnuts. For the good organoleptic characteristics, the industry uses them mainly for the production of Marron glacés, jams, chestnuts with rum, puree. Delicious the sweets of the local tradition that use these chestnuts as a quality raw material.
Under the dietary nutritional aspect, the "Brown Roccadaspide IGP" is particularly relevant to the carbohydrate content, while low is the protein content. The "Brown of Roccadaspide IGP" is considered, together with the chestnut of the Malik IGP and the chestnut of sahoo among the best chestnuts produced in Campania, this not only for the intrinsic quality of the variety, but also for the soil and the favorable climate that They help to exalt the quality of the product. The high productivity (average of 1.5 – 2 tonnes/hectare with peaks of 5-6 tons/hectare) and the lower requirements pedoclimatic, compared to other Italian "Browns", are other agronomic characteristics that can be reported.
The protected Geographical indication "Limone di Sorrento" is referred to the fruits of the lemon cultivar "Massse", also known in literature as "mass lemon" and "Oval of Sorrento", produced exclusively in the area of the Sorrentine Peninsula.
It is a lemon of medium-large size (weight of each fruit not less than 85 grams), elliptical in shape and with a particularly succulent straw-yellow pulp, whose juice is characterized by high acidity and rich in vitamin C and mineral salts. The peel, of a nice yellow citrine, is medium thick and is very fragrant for the rich presence in essential oils.
These peculiar qualitative characteristics make the "Limone di Sorrento" IGP a product of excellence for its category, both for the market of fresh lemons and for the production of the famous "Limoncello", infused with lemon peels immersed in pure alcohol, which In this area of origin he has found his international consecration.
The quality characteristics of the "Limone di Sorrento" IGP are exalted by the particular production techniques, still linked to the cultivation of the plants under the famous "Pagliarelle", straw mats that are supported by wooden support poles, Usually of chestnut, to cover the foliage of the trees, in order to protect them mainly from the cold and the wind and to achieve also a delay of the ripening of the fruits, which represents one of the principal elements of typicality of this production.
In the kitchen, the "Limone di Sorrento" IGP is consumed in many variants: natural, or to prepare juices and juices or to aromatize sweets, jams and beverages. In the restaurants and hotels of the production area, which also includes Capri, the best cooks have invented recipes of author in which the Lemon Sorrentino is a constant in all the dishes, from appetizer to dessert, up to the coffee. It is an ingredient obliged in all the first dishes of "sea" and obviously next to the fish, which in this area is the main gastronomic attraction for tourists.
Huge success among the visitors of the Sorrentine Peninsula have also received some confectionery preparations made from lemon, such as the "Baba Al Limoncello", the "Lemon Delights" and the "lemon sorbet".
Image source: www.limonedisorrentoigp.it
The protected Geographical indication "Castagna di Malik" refers to chestnuts produced for 90% by the Palummina variety and the remaining 10% from the Verdole variety.
The distinctive characteristics of the "Chestnut of Malik" IGP are represented by a medium or medium-small size (75-90 fruits per Kg) and the round form of the fruit, with flat lower face, convex base and medium hairy obtuse summit. The seed has white pulp, crispy and of pleasant sweet taste. The Peel (pericarp) is thin and brown-colored, easily detachable.
Just the shape of the fruit justifies the etymology of the name of the Palommina variety, a form reminiscent of the similarity of a dove that in dialect translates into "Palomma".
Thanks to the high characteristics of fragrance, flavor and keeping, the "chestnut of Malik" IGP is used in the fresh state (including the frozen) and in the dry state in shell or without.
Under the nutritional dietary aspect, the "Malik's chestnut" is particularly relevant for carbohydrate content, while scarce is the protein content.
As well as chestnuts, the chestnuts of Malik are particularly required by the processing industry for use marron glacés, jams, natural, puree. Excellent for garnishing meats and soups, but their use is exalted especially in the preparation of sweets, of different kinds.
The "Chestnut of Malik" IGP is considered among the best chestnuts produced in Italy; The reasons for this success lie, in addition to the intrinsic quality of the variety, also in the composition of the land, in the favorable climate but also in the high professionalism achieved by the chestnut of the area that contribute to exalt the Quality level of the product.
A commercial typology of the "Chestnut of the Malik", especially during the Christmas period, is the baked chestnut (the famous chestnut of the priest), for which an integration to the current production regulation has been requested. It is made with chestnuts in dried, roasted shell and then hydrated with water. In particular, the preparation foresees that the chestnuts, once dried on wooden racks, below which are lit for 15 days. Of the fires using chestnut wood, are roasted in ventilated ovens and then rehydrated. These chestnuts, once shelled, are presented with an intense brown colour and a characteristic flavor that recalls the caramelization of sugars.
The "Paestum artichoke" IGP, also known as the "round of Paestum", from the name of the local, from which it derives, is attributable to the genetic group of artichokes of type "Romanesco". The round aspect of its heads, their high compactness, the absence of thorns in the bracts are the main qualitative and peculiar characteristics of the "Paestum artichoke", which have also consecrated its reputation among consumers. The early maturation character can also be considered an element of positivity given to it by the cultivation environment, the plain of Sele, which allows the "Paestum artichoke" to be present on the market before any other type of artichoke Romanesco.
Other typical characteristics of the product are: an average size of the heads (not more than 4 per shank per kg of product), stalk less than 10 cm, green colour with shades of violet-rosaceae, fleshy receptacle and particularly tasty.
The commercial characteristics of the "Paestum artichoke" described above are also the result of an accurate and laborious cultivation technique that the agricultural operators of the Piana del Sele have honed over the course of decades. The cool and rainy climate during the long period of production (February-May), which characterizes this area, also confers the typical and appreciated tenderness and delicacy to the product.
The characteristics of the "Paestum artichoke" IGP allow this product to be very appreciated in the kitchen, where it is used in the preparation of various typical recipes and local dishes such as pizza with artichokes, cream and mess to Artichokes, particularly pleasing to the many tourists who visit the plain of Sele and in particular the temples of Paestum.
The most accredited thesis on the origins of the designation "Provolone del Monaco" refers to the fact that the housers who landed at dawn in the port of Naples, with their load of provolone from the various locations of the Sorrentine Peninsula, to protect From the cold and humidity, they used to cover themselves with a sack of linen cloak, which was similar to the saio worn by the monks.
Once we arrived in Naples, the people who worked at the market began to call these peasants, monks, and consequently the cheese they were carrying, Provolone del Monaco.
The "Provolone del Monaco DOP" is a semi-hard cheese with spun paste, matured, produced in the area of the Sorrentine Peninsula – Monti Latti, exclusively with raw milk. The specificity of the "provolone del Monaco DOP" is the result of a set of factors typical of the production area, in particular the organoleptic characteristics of the milk produced by bovine animals bred on the territory, the process of transformation that It still mirrors today the artisan traditions and the particular microclimate that characterizes the working and maturing environments.
Through the recognition of the PDO is now possible the recovery and enhancement of the entire zootechnical system of the production area, founded in particular on the breeding of bovine TGA (autochthonous genetic type) Agerolese. Originally from the Province of Naples, the Agerolese breed is widespread today only in the municipalities of Agerola and Gragg. It results from crossings of bovine animals of Frisian, Bruna and Jersey with the local indigenous population and is considered in danger of extinction by the FAO. The color of the mantle can vary from brown to black with a hemming of light hair around the muzzle also dark. The Agerolese cow has very modest yields, but, in contrast, produces a milk of the highest quality, also due to the geographical area of the Suckler mountains and the unique and pristine environment that is found there. This milk, in mixture, is used to produce not only the Provolone del Monaco but also the unequalled Fiordilatte and other cheeses with spun paste of renowned goodness typical of the area.
The distinctive features of the Provolone del Monaco DOP are
-A slightly elongated melon shape with a minimum weight of 2.5 kg and a maximum of 8;
-a thin crust of yellowish colour, almost smooth, with slight longitudinal inlets in correspondence of the raffia ties used for the support of the couple that divide the provolone into a minimum of 6 faces;
-a maturing period of at least six months, with a maximum yield of 9 kg per hectolitre of processed milk,
-A cream-coloured paste with yellowish tones, elastic, compact, uniform and without flaking, soft and with typical dark circles (a "Partridge's Eye");
-A fat content on the dry matter not less than 40.5%;
-A sweet and buttery taste and a light and pleasant spicy taste.
The pasture of the Milky Mountains, made from aromatic herbs present almost all year where the animals freely graze, and the seasoning environments give this cheese an intense aroma and taste, flavours exalted by the length of the seasoning Same. After 7-8 months the provolone tends to turn yellow further, thickening the crust and assuming a more spicy taste and a more consistent aspect of the dough, although still quite soft and always free of flakes. The technique of production of this cheese is very old and laborious: one works the raw milk of every single milking or at the maximum of two successive MILKINGSS and mixes with the goat's rennet. From the coagulation of raw milk, you get the curd, which is broken up to the size of small grains, using a wooden tool called "Sassa", then you move on to the following operations of scalding and spinning. The spinning is rather complex, so that, in some cases, to twist the curd, two people are required to intervene. When the dough has reached the desired consistency, the moulding is made which can be pear, or cylinder. The cheeses obtained are tied in pairs and hung on special frames, where they are left to mature, first at room temperature of drying from ten to twenty days and then in ambient temperature between 8 and 15 °c for a period of not less than six months . It follows the brine, drying and curing that is carried out in cellars for a period ranging from 4 to 18 months. But already at nine months the product reaches its excellence, with the peel that from month to month tends to darken until you reach the typical coloration of ripe hazelnuts. The "Provolone del Monaco DOP" is produced with milk from the for at least 20%, from bovines of type Agerolese registered in the register, and in the remaining quota (80%) from bovines of different breeds (Frisian, Brunalpina, Red dappled, Jersey, Podolica and local mestizo) Bred exclusively in the geographical area provided for by the specification.
The "Provolone del Monaco DOP" is a product of particular value, with a very high selling price, which can vary depending on the length of the aging time, but which for its particular characteristics can give the dishes a taste out of the municipality. An example is the recipe of "pasta and potatoes", food of poor origin that with the addition of a minimum quantity of Provolone del Monaco, both grated and in thin flakes, makes it become rich in perfumes and flavors and make it elevate to great Specialties. But the product, as well as enhancing many other early typical of Campania, is in the appetizers and at the end of the meal that makes fall in love at first sight the consumer for its intense taste and out of the ordinary.
Livestock breeding in the Milking Mountains – Sorrento Peninsula dates back to 260 BC, when the Picentini, the first inhabitants of these mountains, transformed the space taken from the woods into farmland and began the activity of animal husbandry Domestic, especially lattifera-aptitude cattle. The productions obtained from these animals have entered the tradition, culture and economy of this area, consolidating over the centuries. Decisive was the work of the Bourbons, which favoured the genetic improvement of the types bred through works of intersection with excellent results. It goes in particular mentioned the patient work of the military of Ventura Avitabile that, through the crossroads of mestizo of Bruna and Podolica with the race Jersey, came to obtain specimens of a new race, the Agerolese precisely.
The first detailed description of the breed dates back to 1909, curated by Dr. E. Mollo describing the breeding of bovine animals in the district of Castellammare and especially in the Sorrentine Peninsula, gives a detailed description of the cattle bred in this territory. But it was only in 1952, when the breed standard was presented to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, that it officially took the name "Agerolese". In recent decades, however, other races have been introduced gradually replacing to autochthonous ones, such as Agerolese, improving quantitative performance but to the detriment certainly of the qualitative aspect of the product. With the growing interest in the typical quality products of the territory and the careful recovery of the agro-alimentary traditions There has been a gradual revaluation of the native breeds and this has also happened in the area of the milkers, thus allowing to be able Start the recognition of the PDO. The Provolone del Monaco, but also the Fior di latte, the Scamorza are born in this area, always known for the goodness of its cheeses. Of the origin of the denomination it was said, linked to the name of the mantle, similar to a saio, used by the transporters that by sea came to sell their product in Naples, capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
The specificity of the "provolone del Monaco DOP" stems from the typicality of the raw material, which is skilfully transformed by the skillful hands of the housers who jealously guard the secrets of the workmanship of the past. Not negligible frame of this process is the particular microclimate that we find in the working and maturing environments. It is precisely the whole of these breeding and transformation characteristics, inserted in such a variegated environment, which contributes to giving a perfume and an unequalled taste to the product.
The production of the "Provolone del Monaco DOP" concerns the province of Naples, in particular the Sorrentine Peninsula and the territory of the Milking mountains. In particular, the geographical area of cattle breeding, production and curing of the "Provolone del Monaco DOP", are bounded by the entire territories of the following municipalities, falling in the province of Naples: Agerola, Casola of Naples, Castellammare of Stabia, Gragg, letters, Massa Lubrense, Meta, Piano di Sorrento, Pimonte, Sant'Agnello, Sorrento, Santa Maria La charity, Vico Equense.
The Pomodoro San Marzano is known and appreciated all over the world for its characteristics, which are exalted by the transformation in "peeled". The presence of a number of concurrent factors such as: the Mediterranean climate and the extremely fertile soil and excellent structure, the ability and experience acquired by farmers in the area of production over the decades, has contributed to its success in World, Crowned, in 1996, by the recognition of the European Union as the D.O.P.
The intrinsic characteristics that have exalted the product, thus encouraging its knowledge and its consumption are: typically bittersweet taste, elongated form of the berry with parallel longitudinal depressions, bright red color, low presence of seeds and Placental fibres, skin of bright red colour and easy peelability. These, together with the chemical-physical characteristics, make it unmistakable, both in the fresh and transformed state.
The protected designation of origin designates only the product "peeled" and the type "peeled in fillets", coming from the processing of the fruits belonging to the San Marzano type or to improved lines of it (the specification identifies two standards of Product). The product released for consumption must have very precise technological characteristics: uniform red colour with A/b colorimetric ratio of not less than 2.2; Elongated and parallelepiped shape, with length from 60 to 80 mm; Absence of foreign flavors and odours; The weight of the drained not less than 65% of the net weight; Refractometry residue not less than 4%; PH between 4.2 and 4.5. It is allowed the addition of salt (max 3% of the P.N.), basil leaves, tomato juice (but exclusively of S. Marzano).
The cultivation technique of the fresh product foresees the vertical breeding of the plants with the use of supports, thus respecting the secular tradition, even if, for the high number of hours of manpower required, this technique strongly affects the costs of Production.
The "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" is one of the oldest and most typical products of the Campania agriculture, so much that it is even represented in the scene of the traditional Neapolitan nativity.
In fact, in different territories of Campania, there are groupings of eco-types with berries of small size, the so-called "cherry tomatoes", which are distinguished from each other by typicality, rusticity and organoleptic quality. The most famous have always been those still widespread on the slopes of Vesuvius. The "cherry Tomato of the Piennolo del Vesuvio DOP" brings together old cultivars and local biotypes, combined with more or less similar morphological and qualitative characteristics, the selection of which has been cured in the decades by the farmers themselves. The names of these types are the popular ones attributed by the same local producers, such as "Fiaschella", "bulb", "Patanara", "Principe Borghese" and "King Umberto", traditionally cultivated for centuries in the same territory of origin.
The distinguishing characteristics, at the technical-mercantile level, of the product eligible for protection are:
In the fresh state: fruits of oval or slightly pruniforme with pointed apex and frequent ribbing of the stalking part, thick skin of ruby red colour, size not more than 25 g, pulp of high consistency and red colour, lively flavor Intense and sweet-sour;
Preserved in the Piennolo: dark red skin color, pulp of good texture of red color, intense and lively flavor. The "Piennoli" or "snaps" have a weight, at the end of preservation, varying between 1 and 5 kilograms.
To the effects of the protection action it was found that the peculiar aspect of typicality that unites the Vesuvian tomatoes is the ancient practice of preservation "Al Piennolo", that is a technical characteristic to bind some bunches or "bodies" of Ripe cherry tomatoes, to form a large cluster that is then suspended in ventilated rooms, thus ensuring the optimum preservation of the precious harvest until the end of winter. Over the months the tomato, while losing its Turgor, takes on a unique and delicious taste, especially Neapolitans particularly appreciate to prepare delicious and inviting sauces. It is precisely the system of preservation to the "Piennolo" which, favouring a slow maturation, also allows a long preservation, with the consequent possibility of consuming the product "natural" until the following spring.
The tomato of Vesuvius is appreciated on the market both in the fresh state, sold freshly collected on the local markets, that in the typical shape preserved in hanging-"Al Piennolo"-, or also as preserved in glass, according to an ancient family recipe of the area, Called "A Pacchetelle", also contemplated in the PDO production regulations.
Ordinarily the harvest is carried out severing the whole bunches, when on them are present at least 70% of red cherry tomatoes, while the others are being ripened. This ancient practice allows to procrastinate the consumption of the berries, intact and untransformed, throughout the winter after the harvest, up to seven to eight months, using ventilated rooms and without the support of modern conservation technologies.
The peculiarities of the "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" are the high consistency of the peel, the force of attachment to the peduncle, the high concentration of sugars, acids and other soluble solids that make it a long-preservation product during the Which none of its organoleptic qualities undergo alterations. These peculiarities are deeply linked to the environment factors typical of the geographical area in which the tomato is cultivated where the soils, of volcanic origin, are constituted by pyroclastic material originated from the eruptive events of the volcanic complex Sum-Vesuvius.
In this environment of choice, the quality of the tomato reaches peaks of excellence. Its richness in organic acids determines the liveliness or "acidulità" of Taste, which is the distinctive character of the tomato of Vesuvius. This, in addition to deriving from a genetic peculiarity, is an indication of a method of cultivation with low environmental impact and with reduced use of irrigation water, which makes this crop particularly suitable for a protected area, such as that of the National Park of Vesuvius.
The "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" for its qualities is a fundamental ingredient of Neapolitan cuisine and Campana in general, and has a great versatility in the kitchen.
Alongside traditional spaghetti with clams and other seafood, local chefs undertake to use it on many other dishes, including a variation of the delicious Neapolitan pizza.
The cultivation of Piennolo tomatoes on the slopes of Vesuvius has undoubtedly ancient and well-documented roots.
To limit ourselves to the most illustrious historical testimonies, news about the product are brought back from Bruni, in 1858, in his "of the vegetables and their cultivation in the city of Naples", where it speaks of cherry tomatoes, very tasty, which "are maintained excellent until Spring, as long as tied in Serti and suspended at the attics. "
Another reliable literary source is that of Palmieri, who on the Yearbook of the Royal High School of Agriculture in Portici (current Faculty of Agricultural), of 1885, speaks of the practice in the area Vesuvian to preserve the berries of the variety P ' Apennines in Shaded and ventilated places.
Francesco De Rosa, another professor of the School of Portici, on "Horticultural Italy" of November 1902, indicated that the old "Cerasella" Vesuvian had been gradually replaced by the type "a salts", more suitable for the preservation to the Piennolo. De Rosa is also the first researcher who exhaustively reports the entire cultivation technique of vesuvian tomatoes, intending that it was developing in the area an entire economy around this product, from the production of seedlings from The sale of the stored product.
Even the Prof. Marzio Chapman, of the Faculty of Agriculture of Portici, in his text of 1916, agrees with the previous sources, both on the varietal description and on the methods of production, dedicating entire parts of the text to describe meticulously the cultivation technique and Especially by providing data, even economic, that help to understand the laboriousness and complexity of this type of product.
The typical area of production and preservation of the tomato of Piennolo coincides with the entire extension of the volcanic complex of the Somma-Vesuvius, including its sloping slopes up almost to the level of the sea.
In particular, the area of production and conditioning provided for in the specification of the "tomato of the Piennolo of Vesuvius DOP" includes:
- The entire territory of the following municipalities of the province of Naples: Boscoreale, Boscotrecase, Searcha, Herculaneum, mass of sum, Octavian, Pollena Trocchia, Portici, Sant'Anastasia, San Giorgio a Cremato, San Giuseppe Vesuviano, San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, sum Vesuvian, Terzigno, Torre Annunziata, Torre del Greco, Trecase,
- The part of the territory of the municipality of Nola bounded perimeter: From the provincial road of Nola-Rione Trieste (for the section that goes by the name of "Constantinople"), from the "facades Rosario", the limit of the municipality of Ottaviano and the limit of the municipality of Sum Vesuvian.
The extra virgin olive oil "TERRE AURUNCHE", according to the production regulations, requires the use of olives coming for at least 70% from the "sexing" cultivar. The sexing is native to the area of production (its name derives from the name of the town Sessa Aurunca, the most extensive municipality of the area of production), while the smaller cultivars envisaged (Carnelian, Itrana and Tonacella) are native to the neighboring territories and Represent an equally important heritage of local biodiversity.
The extra virgin olive oil "Terre Aurunche" at the time of the consumption has excellent physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics, with acidity of less than 0.60 and a good content in polyphenols; Taste with good tones of bitter and spicy, color that goes from straw yellow to green more or less intense. These characteristics, besides the particular varietal composition of the sexing cultivar, are also due to the simultaneous presence of a mild climate and a volcanic soil, rich in macro and microelements essential to the production of olives and of quality oil.
The territory that marks the PDO "TERRE AURUNCHE" is located in the northern part of the province of Caserta, in the area around the extinct volcano of Roccamonfina, in the olive territories of the municipalities of Caianello, Canice, cello, Conca della Campania, mowing the mass, Francolise, Gabby, Marzano Appio, Majors Monte Lungo, Mondragoe, Rocca d ' Evander, Roccamonfina, San Pietro, Sessa Aurunca, Sparanise, Teano and Tora and Piccilli.
The area of olive groves interested in the PDO is estimated at about 6,000 hectares, for an average annual production of oil equal to about 18,000 quintals per year. Bottling companies interested in the production of DOP oil are 15. The average annual turnover is estimated at 2 million euros, considering that the PDO will affect, at the start-up, 10% of the production.
The extra virgin olive oil DOP Sorrento Peninsula presents, at first sight, a beautiful straw-yellow colour, more or less intense, with greenish reflections; Sometimes it's veiled. The olfactory examination reveals remarkable aromatic harmony, with a delicate hint of fruity olive and with fine and pleasant hints of aromatic herbs (especially rosemary and mint). The taste is definitely sweet with harmonious and mild notes of bitter and spicy. It is fluid, balanced and with pleasant spicy nuances. It has clean aftertaste, of green and fresh almond. Acidity never exceeds the value of 0.80%.
The bitterness and the spicy, in the right gradations, blend perfectly, guaranteeing the right balance to the oil; The Mediterranean smells of rosemary are exalted in the combination with the tomato and the dishes that are called to it. Great on grilled fish and vegetables. Original and particularly pleasant its combination with lemon salads, but especially with sorbet and lemon delight, sweets typical of Sorrento.
The oil "Sorrento Peninsula" DOP is obtained from the milling of the Olives Ogliarola or Minucciola (also known as "olive oil"), for not less than 65%; Rotondella, Frantoio or Leccino, either alone or jointly, to an extent not exceeding 35%. The presence of other varieties for a maximum of 20% of the total is also permitted.
The cultivation techniques of the olive groves are the traditional ones of the Sorrentine Peninsula that assure the oil that derives the high and well known qualitative quality. In olive groves, placed on daring terraces sloping towards the sea, the olives are collected rigorously by hand; Only the aid of mechanical means, such as shakers and vibrating combs, which facilitate the collection, which must be carried out by 31 December of each year, is authorised. It is forbidden to use the drains.
The collection shall be carried out no later than 31 December of each year. The olives must be pressed not later than the second day of the harvest. For the extraction of the oil are allowed only mechanical and physical processes that preserve the quality characteristics of the fruit most faithfully. The maximum production of olives per hectare is 90 q.li, with an oil yield of 20%.
The cultivation of olive trees in Sorrento Peninsula dates back to ancient times. The Punta Campanella, which is the extreme promontory of the Gulf of Naples and faces the island of Capri, was dominated by a temple, sacred to the goddess Athena (Minerva) Capo Minerva, erected by the porpoises, Greek settlers. The entire peninsula was consecrated to the goddess of wisdom and the site became a pilgrimage destination for centuries. Along the way the pilgrims bought on the spot the oil, which was produced in abundance, to be offered to the divinity, already held by the Greeks and then by the Romans inventor of the olives and the oil (Oleaeque Minerva Inventrix, as a poem by Virgil recites).
In the entire peninsula were found remnants of minor sanctuaries erected by the Romans and dedicated to Minerva, with the finding also of containers used for the supply of oil. Since then, the olive tree has no longer abandoned these places and, together with citrus and grapevine, dominates and characterizes the entire landscape of the Sorrentine Peninsula.
The particular orographic conditions, which impose expensive terraces, the typical Mediterranean climate, the volcanic nature of the land, make the environment of the peninsula decidedly original and typical, as is the typical oil that is produced there.
The area of production and processing of olive oil DOP Peninsula includes the territories of 13 municipalities of the Sorrentine peninsula and of the Milking mountains, as well as the island of Capri. They are: Gragg, Pimonte, letters, Casola of Naples, Sorrento, Piano di Sorrento, Meta, Sant'Agnello, Massa Lubrense, Vico Equense, Capri, Anacapri and Castellammare di Stabia (the latter only in part).
The extra virgin olive oil "Irpinia Colline Ufita DOP" presents undoubtedly organoleptic characteristics of great value. It is of a green colour, if young, until straw yellow, of different intensity. The sense of smell is fruity, with pleasant herbaceous notes and clear hints of unripe tomato, which can also be perceived distinctly to taste; The tasting is harmonious, with intense, but always pleasant and balanced sensations of bitter and spicy, in harmony with the high content of polyphenols. The acidity, moreover, does not exceed the value of 0.50%, with score to the panel test not less than 7.
The oil "Irpinia Colline Ufita DOP" must derive for not less than 60% from the variety Ravelas (value 85% for new plants); Other local varieties can be used for the remainder, such as the Ogliarola, the Marinese, the Olivella, the Ruveia, the Court vineyard. Extremely small (not more than 10%) the permissible intake of other non-autochthonous varieties, such as Leccino or Frantoio.
The cultivation techniques of the olive groves are the traditional ones of the hills of the Ufita, which assure the oil that derives the high and known qualitative quality. The harvest shall be carried out no later than 31 December of each year and the olives shall be pressed within two days of the harvest. The yield to the mill may not exceed 20%. The oil "Irpinia Colline Ufita DOP" is the result of the perfect harmony between environment, variety, entrepreneurial capacity and tradition, which in Irpinia are very ancient. The production area of the PDO coincides with the cultivation of the most valuable varieties of the Irpina olive growing and which is as to the symbol of the quality olive growing: la Ravele. The Ravele is a cultivar of unknown origin, but at least from ' 500 diffused almost exclusively in the Territory Ufita-Arianese, privileged component of the Mediterranean diet that in this area is characterized on the trinomial wine bread and oil. The remarkable presence of aromatic notes and its intense fruity taste favours the use of this oil on plates of a certain consistency, like soups based on legumes, tasty pasta of the Irpina tradition, soups, bruschetta and grilled meat. Being a product of great value for its category, through the recognition of the PDO can be known and appreciated not only at local level but on national and international markets.
After the wines, now known all over the world, the Irpinia is placed to the attention of the most demanding consumers with its precious oils, collecting on the markets increasing consensus.
Irpini oils are the result of the perfect harmony between environment, variety, entrepreneurial capacity and tradition, which is very ancient here. In fact, the presence of the olive tree in the Avellino dates back to Roman times, as it is widely documented by numerous exhibits. It was precisely the Romans who built the first tools for the pressing of olives and to improve more and more the techniques of oil preservation.
The maximum spread of the olive growing in Irpinia was however in the Angevin era, and then developed in the Aragonese (14th century) and consolidated definitively in the 1800s.
The testimony of the massive presence of the olive tree in the Ufita is provided by the wide expanses of secular trees in the hills of Ariane, the heart of Irpina olive growing. In the only "City of Ariano," in 1794, there were "twelve mills of Olive Mills, called Vulgarly Trappeti, to which the horses are employed to make them turn…", which become, at the beginning of the 800, 29 as stated Nicola faux in the "History of the City of Aryan ":"… there are 29 Trappeti or olive oil mills, such as inside and outside the town.
There are also numerous historical testimonies concerning the great influence that the olive had on the economy of the rural populations of the area that specialized not only in the production of the oil, but also in that of the amphorae, suitable to contain the already Wanted product.
At the dawn of the third millennium, the olive oil of Ufita is still a product laden with mysticism and above all a fundamental component of the famous Mediterranean diet, of which many experts attest to the health-beneficial aspects.
The oil production area "Irpinia hills of the Ufita DOP" in fact coincides with the cultivation of the variety that is as to symbolize the development of the quality olive growing of the Irpinia and not only: the Rave.
In particular, the area comprises 38 municipalities of the Ufita and the middle Valley of the heat, in the province of Avellino, which are: Ariano, Bonito, Carife, Casalbore, Castel Baronia, Castelfranci, Flumeri, Fontanarosa, Frigento, Naples, Greeks, Grottaminarda, Lapio , Luogosano, Melito, Mirabella Eclano, Montagu, Montecalvo, Malik, Montemiletto, Paternopoli, Pietradefusi, St. Nicholas Barony, St. of the Barony, Sant'Angelo to Bait, Savignano, Scampitella, Sturno,
Taurasi, Torella dei Lombardi, Torre le Nocelle, Trevio, Valley, Vallesaccarda, Venticano, Villamaina, Villanova del Battista, Zungoli.
The oil Cilento DOP is obtained from the award of Olives of the varieties of the Rotondella, Ogliarola, Frantoio, Lella and Leccino for at least 85%; They may also compete in other local varieties in the production area to an extent not exceeding 15%.
The oil, for consumption, is straw yellow with good vivacity and intensity; Often limpid, sometimes veiled. The olfactory examination shows a slight hint of fruity, sometimes with hints of apple and green leaves. The taste is soft and delicate of fresh olive, basically sweet with just perceptible vivid notes of bitter and spicy. It is discreetly fluid, with clear hints of pine and hazelnut and almond aftertaste. The acidity is always below the value of 0.70%. The remarkable presence of aromatic notes favours the use of this oil on dishes of a certain consistency, typical of the area of origin, such as grilled fish, wild salads, boiled vegetables, legumes and first courses in general.
The "Cilento" DOP oil is the result of the harmonization of the most modern processing technologies with a millenary tradition. At the agronomic level, particular care is given during the phases of the harvesting, transport and preservation of the olives. In order to be allowed to produce PDO olive oil, it must be collected strictly by hand; The aid of mechanical facilitators, such as shakers and vibrating combs, is authorised; Networks shall be allowed only to facilitate collection operations, which shall be carried out by 31 December each year.
The maximum production of olives per hectare is 110 quintals, while the yield in maximum oil is 22%. The olives must be pressed within 48 hours of harvesting.
The presence of the oil has characterized the cilento landscape for centuries and represents the main, and sometimes unique, resource of the local populations, so as to become an integral part of their daily life.
The olive tree in Cilento, a land of myths and home of the Homonymous National Park, has ancient roots. Recent Archeobotaniche research has documented the presence of the olive tree as early as the 4th century. Bc.. The tradition, on the other hand, wants the first plants to be introduced by the Porpoise settlers, a refugee population of Greek origin. It was in fact to introduce the oldest variety from local oil, the Paris, which resists very well the brackish winds of the area, is very productive even in a dry area like the Cilento and still today gives the oil Cilento the recognized Typical.
The Olive Cilento, between the temples of Paestum and the ruins of Velia, has imposed its presence also to the great Italian poets of the past:… olive trees, always olive trees! In the middle are olive trees, like sheep in bevy… He writes Ungaretti in his lyric of 1933. In the Cilento, also, has lived for many years also the famous American nutritionist Keys, the father of the Mediterranean diet, which precisely in olive oil attributes a prince, as it leads to a reduction in silky cholesterol, improves the functionality of the cardiovascular apparatus, and protects the body, with its kit of phenolic substances, from serious alterations.
The area of production and processing of the DOP Cilento oil includes 62 municipalities, located south of the province of Salerno, all included in the area of the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano and all characterized by the presence of secular olive trees, which They represent the dominant element of the landscape.
The protected geographical name "Fico Bianco del Cilento" refers to the dried product of the cultivar "dotted", a valuable variety of fig diffused throughout the Mezzogiorno. In particular, the protected product is the one derived from a specific type of the cultivar, which has been selected and spread in Cilento over the centuries: the "White of the Cilento".
Product having unique characteristics and of absolute value, appreciated also abroad, the "white fig of Cilento" DOP owes its denomination to the uniform pale yellow colour of the peel of the dried fruits, which becomes brown for the fruits that have Undergone a baking process in the oven. The pulp is of a typical pasty consistency, with a very sweet taste, of amber yellow colour, with mostly empty aches and internal receptacle almost entirely full. These characteristics, considered of excellence for the commercial category of dried figs, are precisely the distinguishing traits that qualify the "Bianco del Cilento" DOP on the markets.
Packaged with natural in different shapes (cylindrical, coronal, spherical, bag) The figs of the Cilento are also marketed in the ancient way, places that is in bulk in baskets made of material of plant origin that can reach even twenty Kilos of weight. A traditional preparation still in use is the one that sees the figs "fenced", which are threaded into two parallel wooden slats to form the "spatulas" or "Mustaccioli".
The "Fico Bianco del Cilento" DOP is also placed on the market with almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, fennel seeds, citrus peels (ingredients from the same production area) or covered with chocolate, or even immersed in rum, with the objective To broaden the range of the offer, especially at Christmas time. More and more sought after are also dried figs and then gilded in the oven, especially those stuffed. Precious, but increasingly rare for high preparation costs, are the worlds figs, without peel, with a clear colour tending to pure white and with a delicious flavour.
The valuable characteristics of the product as described are due, in addition to the intrinsic qualities of the variety, also to the environment of cultivation and processing of fruits. Indeed, the mitigating action of the sea and the barrier posed by the chain of the Apennines to the cold winter currents coming from the northeast, together with the good fertility of the soil and an optimal pluviometric regime represent the ideal conditions Soil-climatic for the production of figs in Cilento. Moreover, it is important to place the right emphasis on the fact that, in addition to cultivation, the drying and processing phases of the product are carried out in full in the geographical area of production, in agricultural structures and rural buildings, in a harmonious process of Interaction between product, man and environment. The simplicity of cultivation and the resistance of the plant to phytopathological adversity, then, have allowed the cultivation to gain also the liking of the Cilento farmer who has always placed the fig tree in his company, in specialized culture or Subsidiary.
It should not be forgotten, moreover, the function carried out by this cultivation in the maintenance of the landscape and the rural area, from which it seems almost inseparable.
The introduction into the fig Cilento seems to be before the sixth century A. C. It is to be attributed to the Greek settlers who in this area had founded several cities.
Famous authors of the Roman era have praised the characteristics of the agricultural products of Cilento including dried figs. In many documents, in fact, it seems obvious how the dried fig tree is the identification of the area of Cilento. Cato, and then Varro, said that dried figs were commonly used in Cilento and Lucania as a food base for the labor employed in the fields. It is easy to understand how this millennial coexistence has strongly influenced the local culture, which transpires in idioms, in stories, in fairy tales and in everything that is an expression of the human imagination.
Still, in the middle of 1400 is documented, in the "Quaterno customs of the Marine of Cilento" (1486), the existence of a flourishing activity of production and marketing of dried figs, started on the main Italian markets as a valuable food. The "Fico Bianco del Cilento" DOP has gradually evolved, from "bread of the poor", as it was once defined, to precious food to be consumed especially at Christmas time.
Figs, therefore, have always been a significant source of income but also basic food for local populations in difficult historical periods, thanks to the abundance of them and the possibility of storing them for the whole time of the year with Drying. In fact, it owes its secular tenacity and the capacity of Cilento producers if today we have a product of absolute quality. Fig plants for millennia have thus contributed to characterize the rural landscape of Cilento becoming, together with the olive, the icon of the local peasant civilization..
The production area of the "Fico Bianco del Cilento" DOP includes 68 municipalities, located south of Salerno, from the coastal hills of Agropoli to the Bussento and largely included in the area of the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano.
The "Onion noceri DOP" characterizes the bulbs of the species Allium Cepa L. (onion), produced for over 2000 years in the Pompeian agro-Nocasso. The local varietal types referred to the PDO are: Nocera (variety registered in the CE Register of Horticultural), early the Queen, early Wonder, cold Marzatica, Hot Marzatica, Nocerese, Bianca di Castellammare, San Michele, Giugnese.
The distinguishing characteristics, at the technical-mercantile level, of the "Onion Nocerium DOP" are: a calibre with a collection of 2-4 cm (it is part of the medium-small size onions), a cylindrical, tunic-shaped bulb, crushed to the poles, with light Enlarged at the base of the leaves, color of the inner and outer tunics entirely white, succulent pulp and sweet taste, leaves of intense green colour, of linear form ending with tip.
Being a spring-harvested onion (March to June) is mainly used for fresh consumption, not having a high propensity for preservation.
The "Onion Caceri DOP" owes its valuable characteristics that make it distinguish from other analogues produced above all to the particular and exceptional conditions geo-soil where it is cultivated. It is known that the soils of the agro-sarnese and the crusty-Pompeian area, for their volcanic origin, are loose, flat and of high fertility and they give to the local agricultural products characteristics of high quality, as in the case of the Pomodoro San Marzano Dop. Precisely, the zoocoenoses conditions and the absolute vocation of the climatic environment are the basis of the exceptional qualitative value of the vegetable productions of the area. and the "Onion Noceri DOP" for its peculiar and distinct specificity, after San Marzano, is precisely the most cultivated species in the Agro. Due to its qualitative and organoleptic characteristics, mainly linked to the tenderness of the bulb and to the sweetness of the pulp, a little acrid and spicy, which make it a product of high digestibility, is particularly required on the national markets and International. Wanted by the local chefs is almost always tasted fresh next to green salads, tomatoes but is also present in the first dishes and used to garnish many other delicacies.
The "Onion Noceri DOP", in addition to its typicality owes its reputation on the markets also because of its high quality product characteristics. This is because the finished product, from the moment after the harvest, undergoes a series of processes that give it that essential added value today to compete on the global market: peeling of the bulb, washing, selection, partial cutting of Radical tuft and leaves, tying in bunches, conditioning. The product released for consumption is classified as a first-class merchant.
Certain testimonies of the presence of the onion in the Agro date back over 2000 years ago: In ancient Pompeii, in fact, local onions are depicted in the paintings of the "Sarno", the chapel where the Lari, the protectors of the house were kept. In fact, even in Pompeii, as in Egypt and Greece, the onion, for its beneficial and curative effects, was considered a sacred identity. The painting synthesizes graphically the reality of the local variety, which already at the time, represented an important and typical expression of the local rurality. The Sarno River is depicted, mythologized with human form, which, from a protector, observes and protects the production and trade of the onions that, produced in its fertile Valle del Sarno, are transported with a boat on its waters to the city of Pompeii. Unique and extraordinary testimony that certifies the historical vocation of the area to this culture. The onions depicted are white and small, almost identical to those referred to today as the "Onion Noceri DOP". From that it is deduced that the Agro Sarnese-Nocasso-Pompei historically has the optimum conditions for the cultivation of onions and that for over 20 centuries on this area have been cultivated and handed down with the same phenotypic characteristics and very Probably with the same germ plasma as those that are still part of the "Onion Noceri DOP".
Other historical quotes report that in the Middle Ages the onions of the Agro were conferred on the market together with the oranges, lemons and chestnuts of the surrounding areas. The famous Hippocratica Civitas of the medical school Salerno, flourishing already at the end of 1400, in the regimen Salernitanum the Sanitations advises its use.
At the end of the 1800s and in the early years of ' 900, the biotypes referred to the "onion noceri DOP" are reported and described in agronomy manuals and in the catalogues of the most important seed producers. Even after the Second World War the cultivation of the white onion had an important importance in the local production systems. With the boom of the tomato and the other species horticultural the southern horticulture and Campana in particular was much appreciated and demanded by the international market favouring a dynamic agri-food chain that in the agro Sarnese-Noceri found its Maximum expression. The "Onion Caceri DOP" also had a significant increase in production and has already been involved in the development of Agro agriculture for several decades.
The production area of the "Onion noceri DOP" is concentrated in the agro-Sarnese in the province of Salerno and in the Pompeian-crusted area in the province of Naples. The municipalities concerned are 21, of which those Salerno are: Rome, St. George, Nocera Inferior, Nocera Superiore, Pagani, Roccapiemonte, Sarno, San Marzano on the Sarno, S. Egidio del Monte Albino, San Valentino thorium, Hull, are, while those in Province of Naples are: Boscoreale, Castellammare di Stabia, Gragg, Poggiomarino, Pompeii, Santa Maria La charity, Sant'Antonio Abate, Striato and Terzigno.
Caciocavallo silane DOP is a semi-hard cheese, with spun paste, produced with cow's milk of different breeds, including the Podolica, a typical native breed of the inner areas of the southern Apennines. The production of the Silane Caciocavallo begins with the coagulation of fresh milk at a temperature of 36-38 °c, using veal or kid rennet. The maturation phase consists of a vigorous lactic fermentation, whose duration varies on average from 4 to 10 hours and can be said completed when the dough is in the conditions of being spun. It follows a characteristic operation, consisting in the formation of a kind of cordon, which is moulded until it reaches the final form. The shape, spherical, oval or screws, varies according to the different geographical areas of production. The weight is between 1 and 2.5 kg. The crust, thin, smooth, with a marked straw color on the surface, can show the presence of light inlets due to ties. The pasta is homogeneous or with slight, white or straw-yellow colour. The flavor is initially sweet until it is spicy with advanced maturing. The silane Caciocavallo can be consumed as table cheese or used as an ingredient for many recipes typical of southern Italy. Thanks to its nutritional qualities, it is particularly suitable for the diets of children, elderly and sportsmen.
The most accredited thesis on the origin of the designation "Caciocavallo" makes it derive from the custom of hanging the forms of cheese, in pairs, on horseback of Poles of wood, arranged in the vicinity of Hearths. The first author describing the technique used by the Greeks in the preparation of cheese is Hippocrates in 500 BC. Later, several Latin authors, including Columella and Pliny, treated cheese in their own works. In particular, Pliny exalts the qualities of the "butter", ancestor of our Caciocavallo, called "Delicate food". Instead, the designation "silane" derives from the ancient origins of the product linked to the Sila plateau.
The production of this cheese is located in the interior areas of the regions Calabria, Basilicata, Campania, Molise and Puglia. In Campania, partially, all the provinces are concerned.