Salerno is located in a central location of the Gulf, between the Amalfi Coast and the Piana del Sele.
The first settlement dates from the Osco period, it was inhabited by the Samnite and in 197 B.C. It became Roman colony under the name of Salernum. Its importance grew in the 8th century, with the Lombard domination of Arechi II. As the seat of the Principality lived a long period of splendor thanks to the presence of the medical school Salerno, the oldest medical institution in the west, which the tradition wants was founded by four Masters: an Arab, a Jew, a Latin and a Greek. Between the 10th and 12th centuries the city experienced the most prosperous period of its history. The cultural and economic growth continued under the rule of the Normans and the Swabians, to stop in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the Spaniards, mainly because of the hegemony of Naples. In 1800 the first factories were built, mainly thanks to foreign investments, in particular in Switzerland: In 1877 on the Territory were 21 textile factories with 10,000 workers. Salerno was later nicknamed "The Manchester of the Two Sicilies". In September of 1943 it was the scene of the Allied landings, which entered the Italian peninsula and opened the way to advance towards Rome.
The heart of the city is the medieval quarter.
The old town is characterized by many alleyways, now full of shops, which follow the shape of the medieval town plan and retain beautiful historic buildings and much of its religious architecture. The Duomo from the 11th century is dedicated to St. Matthew and is the city's most important monument, a masterpiece of Norman architecture. The vast porticos with the ancient columns, as well as an elegant loggia decorated with inlaid wood. An imposing Romanesque tower dominates the atrium. Inside, two magnificent pulpits are richly decorated with mosaics from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. There is also a Baroque crypt from the 1600 covered with polychrome marbles. There are numerous tombs, the most important of which is that of Queen Margaret of Durres.
Looking up at the hills you can see the imposing Arechi Castle from which you will enjoy an enchanting panorama.
The Teatro Verdi, inaugurated in 1872, is one of the most important opera houses in Italy.