The territory of the feverfew reveals immediately to the eye of the visitor the essence of the different peoples who, over the centuries, have dominated the innermost areas of Campania (Samnite, Lombards, Angevin, Aragonese etc.). The presence of ancient villages and castles, true jewels of architecture, testify, in fact, the succession of different cultures each of which has impressed on the territory the sign of its passage. To observe the feverfew today means, in fact, to be at the center of a harmonious confluence between culture, landscape and history. of paved streets, characteristic stone portals, picturesque arches can be admired walking immersed in a silence of old times. Majestic castles, imposing towers and monumental churches stand among the lush vegetation.
The symbol of the whole territory is, for example, the Angevin Tower of Summonte: cylindrical and of a tastefully medieval form. The fascinating game of nature that stands in the testimonies of the past is present a little everywhere between the slopes of Feverfew where, by the local lords, were built many palaces and castles. Admirable is the palace of the Lioness Pignatelli and the castle in San Martino Valle Caudina; The Carafa Palace in Sant'Angelo a Scala and the Marquis Palace in Cervinara. Of Lombard origins is the castle of ARPA. Neoclassical features characterize the Palazzo Tiroe di Paoli.
Of great strategic importance is the Lombard castle of Malik, which dominates the district from the Colle S. Martino was a fortress of the Angevin and Aragonese house. of notable historical and architectural importance, in Mahi, is the Abbey Palace of Loreto, the work of Domenico Vaccaro, a pupil of Vanvitelli. Inside it contains rare documents and precious parchments; It houses a stocked library and a valuable pharmacy.
The testimonies of the past are found in the area of Baianese, more than elsewhere. The fascination of history envelops, in fact, monuments of the Roman era and the ancient amphitheatre of Abo; There are numerous archaeological finds in Baiao including an ancient Roman villa.
There are also many places of worship among which, first of all, mention the majestic sanctuary of Montevergine, where the black Madonna is venerated (so-called Mamma Saena). It is nestled in the mountain massif of Feverfew (at 1270 m A.S.L.) and is guarded by the beauty of the valleys and the villages of the park. The fascination of the ancient abbey together with that of the new basilica, the Museum of religious relics and the permanent exhibition of cribs attract thousands of visitors making the sanctuary one of the major religious tourist destinations of Campania.La Construction of the church dedicated to the Virgin goes back to the year 1120, period of the foundation of the monastic order wanted by St. William from Vercelli. The enlargement and transformation of the church in a monastery enriched by the donation of feuds, land and vassals, soon made the sanctuary an important destination to the point of conditioning, with its political-religious influence, the history of all the Territory of the Feverfew.
Placed almost to remember the proximity to the sanctuary is the monument to the pilgrimage that can be admired in Ospedaletto of the pine. The Sanctuary of Saint Filomena, which cherishes the relics of the martyr, is a Mugnano of the cardinal. The feverfew gave hospitality to two of the different tribes of the Samnite people: the Caudini and the Hirpini.
A memorable defeat that the Samnite army inflicteded to the Roman legions (321 BC) humiliated and forced to pass under the yoke of spears. The exact identification of the place where the trap of the Roman legions was put in place, has long been the subject of contention. The most accredited hypothesis, however, seems to identify the famous Caudine forks in the original nucleus of the town of Forchia.
The park protects the Apennine ridge of the Monti del Feverfew, of carbonated nature with pyroclastic deposits coming from eruptive actions of the nearby sum-Vesuvius complex: Over 25 kilometers of slopes to Fort Slope and high-rise karst planes in the heart of the region. The feverfew complex comprises, mainly, hilly and mountainous environments, with isolated peaks, alternating valleys and karstic plateaus. In particular, the chain of the feverfew, 30 kilometers long, is located in the center of Campania, northwest of the city of Avellino, and between Mount Taburno, to the north-west, and the complex of the Picentini Mountains to the southeast. The area of Parco Feverfew is located in the hydrogeological unit of the mountains of Abo-Montevergine-Pizzo in vain, between the valley of Caudina and of the north, the plain of Nola and Salerno to the west, the valley of the stream Solofrana to the south.
The mountainous system can be considered to be made up of at least three dorsals of different sizes, extended all from east to west and separated by deep valleys, with watercourses with torrential regime. The highest peaks are Montevergine (1480 meters), Mount Abo (1598 meters) and Mount Heather Alto (1357 meters). The superficial hydrography appears to be more marked by streams of torrential character afferent for the large part to the catchment basin of the river heat that runs along the area north of the feverfew. The Territory is however, routed by a network of small streams to limited development. The Rio Vergine flows near Avellino in the Rio windows, tributary of the river Saturday. The Crow's Creek Basin is located from south to north between the provinces of Avellino and Benevento. The mountain basin that feeds the Regi complain is located in the territory of the park and is constituted by the waters of the Clano torrent, affecting the provinces of Avellino, Naples and Caserta. On the north side, the Isclero River, a left tributary of the Volturno, originates. Another torrent is the Caudino torrent.
From the climatic point of view the park has a high variability, due mainly to the proximity of the sea. In altitude The rainfall recorded is one of the highest nationwide (2200 mm annual and 121 rainy days). In the lower areas the recorded value, however, can also be much lower. The wettest months are November, December and January. In the mountain areas of the park there are not particularly dry periods because even the summer months are characterized by rainy phenomena. Different is the situation in the lower areas, where in the summer there is, however, an almost total absence of precipitation. Temperatures fluctuate between 26 and 17 degrees Celsius, depending on altitude, in July (the hottest month), while the average temperature of January (the coldest month) is 0 °, with negative oscillations depending on altitude. The snow makes its appearance, also abundant, in the winter months in the areas at altitude.
The Mountain oasis above Pannarano
The area of the oasis is completely within the perimeter of the regional Natural Park of feverfew (Zone A and B), and includes a large part of the site of Community importance (SIC) called "Dorsal of the Monti del feverfew" Cod. IT 8040006.
It is located in the heart of the Feverfew Regional Park and is extended from 800 m. Above sea level. Up to 1598 M.A.S.L. Of the mountains of ABO, peak of the massif. The geological skeleton is of a purely calcareous nature but the volcanic activity of Monte Somma-Vesuvius has enriched the territory of pyroclastic materials making the soils Fertlissimi, but also extremely fragile.
The oasis whose extension is 312 hectares has a remarkable vegetable complessività and has plant species linked to both a Mediterranean and apennine environment. The waterways are strictly torrential. The management of the protected Area, established in 2000 is entrusted to WWF Italy, regional section Campania, in agreement with the municipality of Pannarano. The services are entrusted to the cooperative celandine.
The high inhabited of the park, the excessive exploitation of the hydrographic network as a source of supply for potable and irrigation uses, the ancient agroforestry practices, have contributed to diversify the landscape especially in Piedmont fascia, but also make it particularly vulnerable to the danger of the insularizzazione of the massif from the surrounding areas, of the anthropic disturbance, of the ecological fragmentation, of the impoverishment of the wetlands.
Park area: 14,870.24 hectares
Involved provinces: Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Naples