The Natural reserve FOCE SELE TANAGRO
The Foce Sele-Tanagro nature Reserve is a protected natural area of Campania, established in 1993. It develops along the mouth of the Sele River and presents a rich vegetation, thanks also to a process of reforestation: among the varieties of trees, we find the maritime pine and the domestic pine, especially in the stretch of coast between the baby and the Paestum.
The variety of the rooms is mainly offered by the altitudinal level of the area, which extends from the sea level to 1800 m of Mount Polveracchio. The coastal environments are flanked by the sheltered groves on the sides of the two rivers, with a good variety of habitats and species, especially among the birds. You can observe during the footsteps black storks, spatulas, flamingos, major terns, eyes, falcons, Cuckoos, Ospreys, curlews, minor mergansers. There are also numerous wintering species, including coral gulls and seagulls courses, Tern, Gavine, Marine scoters. In the area of the reserve, is included the WWF oasis of unhealthy.
WWF Oasis of Health The Oasis and the neighbouring military estate of the unhealthy form a large green island whose natural characteristics have been kept unchanged. The WWF Oasis is located in the upper part of the plain of Sele, at the top of the plain that fan-shaped opens to the sea between the mountains Picentini and the mountains sapwood. The area, located in the municipalities of Serre and Campagna (SA), has an extension of 110 hectares, 70 of which are occupied by the reservoir, and is included in a wider protected territory of 3400 hectares, of which 2100 belong to a regional oasis of protection of the fauna and the Remaining 1300 are intended for restocking and capture zone; The altitude varies between 40 and 75 m A.S.L.
Historical Notes on the Oasis Already in ' 700 the beauty of the places and the abundance of animals induced the Bourbons to elect a real site, an expression that defined the territories reserved for the hunting of the king. The diaries of Ferdinand IV of Bourbon handed down the image of a natural environment rich in "fountains, valleys, forests of Cerri, wild trees, wild boars, fallow deer and hares", as it appears in watercolors of the time and how Goethe described it in his travels .
The most important transformations were started with the reclamation of the land carried out from 1885 with the filling of the coastal swamp, and continued until the Thirties. The presence of the dam, completed in 1934, and of the reservoir generated by it, contributed in these 70 years to an evolution of the natural systems altogether in the sense of the resumption of the ancient river dynamics: With floods, albeit of Small scope, formation of secondary water mirrors and slow environments of great naturalistic interest.
Fauna The oasis of health, being a wetland, is an important habitat for avifauna because it is a fundamental place for nesting aquatic species and reeds, as well as being used as a stopover and wintering for migratory species that during the periods Autumn and spring. So far, 184 species have been reported, of which 47 nest in the oasis or in the immediate vicinity.
From October to March there are pochards and Morete tabaccate, but also mallards and teals; Also present are the Fischioni, codons and Shovellers.
There are many marzaiole that can be observed in the spring and the Coots constantly populate the whole body of water.
The cranes plough the skies of the oasis in spring when with flocks of hundreds of individuals go up the valley of Sele. The cormorant, herons, herons and sgarze are also present in the area. Interesting is the presence of raptors and can be observed: The Falcon Buzzard, the kite, the red kite, the osprey.
Of extraordinary importance is the presence of the otter, symbol of the oasis and main reason of its institution. This mustelid is at high risk of extinction and deserves adequate conservation actions. The Sele basin constitutes one of the last shelters for this animal, just think that 50% of the Italian population is housed in the oasis of health and other stations of Campania, Basilicata and Puglia.
There are lampreys, generally rarefaction for pollution and overbuilding of embankments; Among the fauna of Dissano, in particular, is the Vulturino which is considered threatened throughout southern Italy since, in general, the Italian Dulciacquicoli fish suffer from the competition with alien species introduced.
Worrying is the presence of the nurse, with a stable population that reproduces regularly. This rodent, of South American origin, was introduced in Italy for the purpose of breeding for the production of furs, but the crisis of the sector has determined a gradual abandonment of the herds and the introduction in kind of the specimens. This has led to the formation of wild populations that have expanded very quickly. The problem of invasive alien species is linked to the multiple negative impacts that they exert on local biodiversity. In the case of nourishment, this impact is exerted on aquatic vegetation and avifauna, on agricultural crops and on the banks of water bodies.
Among the amphibians are: Italian crested Newt, Common toad, Italian Frog and green frog.
Flora Inside the Oasis and in its immediate surroundings you can appreciate a diversified mosaic vegetational consisting of a large number of herbaceous, arboreal and shrubs that are at the base of the great biodiversity that characterizes the area.
The oasis can be divided into three different environments: the lake, the reeds and the Igrofilo forest.
The lake has been colonized by several species of aquatic plants such as the water language (Potamogeton nodosum), the Water puff (Myriophyllum spicatum), the Ceratofillo (Ceratophyllum demersum), which play an important role in the feeding of Vegetarian aquatic birds such as coot and plunging ducks.
The reeds cover about one third of the lake's surface, distributed in large expanses on the banks and the islets, and are mainly made up of the marsh straw (Phragmites australis). The reed is a natural filter, important for the purification of water and an essential habitat for the nesting of passerines birds typical of this environment. Depending on the depth of the water, the marsh straw is associated with or is replaced by other communities: the Sparganieto (Sparganium erectum), the Scirpeto (Scirpus lacustris), the Tifeto (Typha angustifolia).
The Bosco Igrofilo is one of the most important in Italy. When the Sele is in full, its waters invade the forest, which merges with the river environment. The forest thus operates as an expansion box for the waters of the river, which enters and exits freely from the band of shelter vegetation. The tree species prevalent in the hydrophilic forest are poplar to the dominance of black Poplar (Populus nigra), Black Alder (Alnus glutinosa), White Willow (Salix alba), and Red Willow (Salix purpurea).
Finally, worthy of note are the thirteen species of orchid that can be found in the meadows surrounding the reservoir.
Visits to the WWF oasis of unhealthy The WWF staff in the visitor centre of the oasis of health receives visitors at all times of the year to accompany them along the two nature trails within the protected territory.
With 12 huts and towers for bird watching, nature trails, walkways, on both sides of the Sele River, the Oasis is able to offer exploratory paths suitable for different needs.
For bookings and visits: 0828/97.46.84 How to arrive
By car: From the A3 Salerno-Reggio Calabria motorway, exit at the country Junction, turn left and continue on the straight that enters the S.S. 19 of the Calabrie. Turn left again, and, after 4 km, take the left, the junction for the Strada Comunale Falzia and, after 1km, you reach the hundred visits.
Activity of the Oasis
The oasis of health has long been the only protected area adequately equipped for visits, with a visitor center, huts and towers for bird-watching, nature trails, walkways, places on both banks of the river. Over the years these structures have had various vicissitudes due to floods of the river, fires and acts of vandalism due to a constant climate of hostility and poor acceptance by the owners of the surrounding land.
During the years 1989-1990 the Superintendence of the environmental goods of the province of Salerno has carried out in the Oasis a series of works of Ristutturazione of the routes and the structures of visit. 12 huts have been realized for the bird-watching, of which seven along the left bank, and arranged different nature paths, addressed to relative types of users.